AbsolutismCarmelite Order (Saint Teresa) Union with God, by Humility, Prayer, Meditation, QuietJesuit Order: Society of Jesus, missionary workThirty years war 1648-1648: religious conflict involving Europe in nation building and ending with freedom of religion. Scientific investigation, microscope, telescope, and navigational advances Time of expansiveness and exploration. New worlds were being discovered geographically,World Wide Mercantilism: international trade networks with old and new world, slave trade, trade with far east, new ideas of diplomacyShakespeare, Mozart and HaydnCatholic countries pursuing the Counter- Reformation.
Baroque Style:•Energy •Diverse•Fascination with illumination emotion•Theatrical• individual images• interaction fusion of architecture, sculpture and painting, •movement •Revitalization through massive commissions
17th century Italy birth of Baroque Realism:•Caravaggio and Velazquez•Light represents divine illumination, as a dramatic device •Theatrical contrasts of deep shadow with bright highlights. The illumination has spotlight quality to it.•Strong diagonal lines.
Caravaggio, Conversion of Saint Paul, c. 1601, Rome
Caravaggio, Calling of Saint Matthew, c.1600, Rome
Caravaggio, Entombment, c. 1603, Rome,9’10”x 6’ 8”
Gentileschi, Judith Slaying the Holofernes, c. 1614-1620, Florence
Pozzo, Glorification of Saint Ignatius, Rome,
Borromini, Façade of San Carlo alle Quattro, Rome, 1665-1667
Borromini, Chapel of St. Ivo, Rome, 1642
Bernini, David, 1623, Rome, Marble
Bernini, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, Cornaro Chapel, Rome, c. 1645-1652
30 minute Essay Question:
Choose one sculpture from Bernini and one painting from Caravaggio and discuss each artist’s individual style and why it is considered to be Baroque.