Science of collecting, analyzing and conceptualizing biological data by implication of informatics techniques.
What is Bioinformatics
Mouse Genome: 2.5 billion base pairsHuman Genome: 3 billion base pairs
Manage biological information organize biological information using databases Process, analyze, and visualize biological data Share biological information to the public using the
Goals of Bioinformatics
Bio – informatics Bioinformatics is conceptualizing biology in
terms of molecules (in the sense of physical-chemistry) applying “informatics” techniques (derived from disciplines such as applied math, CS, and statistics) to understand and organize the information associated with these molecules, on a large-scale.
Bioinformatics is a practical discipline with many applications.
Systems biology Genomics
Biological Information Central Dogma
of Molecular Biology DNA -> RNA -> Protein -> Phenotype -> DNA
Molecules Sequence, Structure, Function,
Interaction Processes Mechanism, Specificity,
Central Paradigmfor Bioinformatics
Genomic Sequence Information -> mRNA (level) -> Protein Sequence -> Protein Structure -> Protein Function -> Protein Interaction -> Phenotype
Large Amounts of Information Statistical Computer Processing
Methods of analyzing
data Systems Analysis
Development of new softwareAlgorithm
Using different algorithms
and computer software
Could not have been achieved without bioinformatics Goals 3 billion DNA subunits Discover all the human genes Make them accessible for further biological study
Need to bring together and store vast amounts of information from
Lab equipment and experiments Computer Analysis Human Analysis Make visible to the world’s scientists
Human genome project
How to analyze
information Data –Management. –Analysis. –Derive Hypothesis. –Design and Implement an in silico
experiment. –Confirm in the wet lab.
Find an answer quickly Most in silico biology is faster than in vitro 2. Massive amounts of data to analyze Need to make use of all information Not possible to do analysis by hand Can’t organize and store information only using lab
note books• Automation is key However! Verification ?
1. Computational biology- Computing methods for classical biology Primarily concerned ----> Evolutionary, population
and theoretical biology, Cellular/Molecular biology ?
2. Medical informatics- Computing methods to improve communication,
understanding, and management of medical data Data Manipulation
3. Chemo -informatics Chemical and biological technology, for drug
design and development
4. Genomics Analysis and comparison of the entire genome of
a single species or of multiple species Genomics existed before any genomes were
completely sequenced, but in a very primitive state
5. Proteomics Study of how the genome is expressed in proteins, and of
how these proteins function and interact Concerned with the actual states of specific cells, rather
than the potential states described by the genome
6. Pharmacogenomics The application of genomic methods to identify drug
targets For example, searching entire genomes for potential drug
receptors, or by studying gene expression patterns in tumors
7. Pharmacogenetics : The use of genomic methods to determine
what causes variations in individual response to drug treatments
The goal is to identify drugs that may be only be effective for subsets of patients, or to tailor drugs for specific individuals or groups
Main Goal: ?
The “post-genomics” era
Identify the genes within a given sequence of DNA
Identify the sitesWhich regulate the gene
Predict the function
A gene is characterized by several features (promoter, ORF…)
some are easier and some harder to detect…
How do we identify a gene
in a genome?
Comparison between the full drafts of the human and chimp genomes revealed that they differ only by 1.23%