Children and disasters - Building resilience through education

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UNICEF, December 2011

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  • 1.Children anddisasters:Building resiliencethrough education

2. Children anddisasters:Building resilience The United Nations Children`s Fund (UNICEF) and The United NationsInternational Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), December 2011through education 3The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed here are those of theauthors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UNICEF and UNISDR, or anyof the agencies involved in this report. These organizations cannot guarantee theaccuracy of the data included in this paper. The boundaries, colours, denominationsand other information shown or mentioned in this paper or any map reported do notimply on the part of those organizations any judgment of the legal status of anyterritory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education 3. PrefacePrefaceThe present report is the outcome ofISDR Europe and Central Asia officesa collaborative initiative between theand UNICEF Central and Eastern Eu-United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) rope and Commonwealth of Independ-Regional Office for Central and Eastern ent States regional office have agreedEurope and Commonwealth of Independ-to join forces to support progress in thisent States (CEECIS), and the United Na- HFA priority area in the regions of Southtions International Strategy for Disaster Eastern Europe and the CommonwealthReduction (UNISDR) offices for Europe of Independent States. This report wasand Central Asia. prepared in support of that initiative. Theobjectives are:The CEECIS region has a history of majordisasters caused by natural hazards, in-to provide a brief overview of majorcluding earthquakes, floods and extreme hazards and disaster risk in thetemperatures. These frequently devas- CEECIS region;tating events affect all of the popula- to conduct a review of nationaltions of the countries involved, with se- disaster risk reduction structuresvere social and economic consequences and key legislation;for the most vulnerable people, children, to conduct a review of currentwomen and elderly. However, the impactdisaster risk reduction activitiesof these natural hazards could be drasti- related to education undertaken bycally reduced if appropriate disaster risknational agencies and activities byreduction strategies at regional, nationalUNISDR and UNICEF1;and community level were put in place.to conduct a review of on-goingUNICEF country programmes andThe aim of this report is to further con- UNISDR activities to facilitate thetribute to the process of building resil- effective implementation of disasterience of nations and communities in the risk reduction initiatives, strategiesCEECIS region, providing an overview of and programmes.the national situation vis--vis disasterrisk reduction strategies.This report builds on the Hyogo Frame-work for Action, which is promoted andKnowledge and education are recog-supported by UNISDR and UNICEF. It fo-nized as key components of disaster riskcuses on the importance of education in Prefacemanagement and were made a priority disaster prevention, as advanced in thearea in the Hyogo Framework for Action2006-2007 World Campaign on Disaster(HFA) 2005-2015: Building the ResilienceReduction under the slogan Disaster Riskof Nations and Communities to Disas-Reduction Begins at School. It providesters. Goal 2 of the Millennium Develop- general information on national educa-ment Goals discusses the importance oftion and disaster risk reduction activitiesprimary education in lowering poverty,and makes recommendations on how towhile Priority 3 of the HFA focuses onsupport and build on local and nationalincreasing resilience and building a cul- initiatives to reduce the risk of disastersture of safety and resilience at all levels through education. The report is aimed atthrough the use of knowledge, innovationgovernment representatives, United Na-and education.tions and other actors, and practitionersoperating in the context of education,Within this framework, and as part of disaster risk and sustainable develop-the broader International Strategy forment.Disaster Reduction (ISDR) partnershipin disaster risk reduction (DRR), UN-4 51 Without being exhaustive or comprehensive, reference is also made to ongoing programmes related to education and DRR undertaken by UNCT.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education 4. Executive SummaryExecutive SummaryThis report analyses disaster risk reduc-included elements of disaster risk reduc-tion in the context of education at coun-tion in the formal education system, whiletry level. It reviews existing documents,in others certain activities are undertak-including country-level reports and HFAen by national and international organiza-National Reports, to develop an under- tions. Nonetheless, despite some promis-standing of current national economicing signs of the adoption of elements ofenvironments, legislation, awareness,disaster risk reduction significant capac-capacity and institutional mechanismsity gaps remain and several countriesrelated to disaster risk reduction and dis-would undoubtedly benefit from furtheraster management. Various project doc- encouragement and support in this area.uments prepared at country, regional andglobal level were also reviewed, as were Integration of disaster risk reduction intodocuments prepared by United Nations education is a long-term process whichagencies, and national and international aims to ensure that knowledge aboutorganizations working in the area. Datahazards, risks and appropriate safetysources include the Centre for Researchbehaviour is deeply embedded withinon the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED)communities, with children as agents ofEmergency Events Database (EM-DAT).change. To achieve this there is a need to promote knowledge of disaster man-Most countries in the region2 covered by agement and behavioural change with re-the report have undergone major politi-gard to disaster risks through both formalcal, social, economic and administrative and non-formal education, while at thechange and this is reflected in the legisla- same time reinforcing partnerships andtive and institutional aspects of disaster encouraging cooperation on disaster riskrisk management. In many countries leg-reduction policies and practices.islation is in the process of developmentand adoption and some structures are yet The report concludes with some propos-to be established. In some cases there isals on potential areas of cooperation anda shift from military to civil administrationcollaboration, exploring potential syner-in disaster management structures, while gies between stakeholders and buildingin many countries even though much new on results already achieved. After andisaster risk management legislation has overview of risk vulnerability, existingbeen passed the laws are yet to be fully legal and institutional structures and ac-Executive Summaryimplemented or enforced. Furthermore,tivities undertaken by national authori-many countries of the region lack com- ties, as well as a consideration of on-go-prehensive national disaster managementing UNICEF programmes and UNISDRsplans or clear definitions of the roles andpresence, a series of recommendationsresponsibilities of different departments. are presented on how successes in theOverall, there is a need to shift the focusfield of education for disaster risk re-from response to disaster preparedness duction already achieved can be furtherand prevention. Incorporating disaster consolidated.risk reduction into educational activitiesat the policy and operational levels willencourage this shift.However, when consideration moves tothe level of inclusion of disaster risk re-duction in education sectors a similarlydiversified picture emerges. In somecountries the government has already6 72 The reference region for Central Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States refers to the geographical regional coverage used byUNICEF. In the context of UNISDR, it refers more to South Eastern Europe (SEE) and Central Asia.Children and disasters: Building resilience through educationChildren and disasters: Building resilience through education 5. Acknowledgements AcknowledgementsChildren and Disasters: Building Resil-(Programme Officer, Disaster Reductionience through education was commis-Programme in Central Asia) and Ms. Aselsioned jointly by the UNICEF RegionalOmoeva (National Programme Officer,Office for CEECIS and UNISDR offices Kyrgyzstan); Focus Humanitarian As-for Europe and Central Asia. The reportsistance: Mr. Malik Ajani, Jr. (Programmehas benefited from the contributions ofOfficer, Tajikistan); Central Asian Insti-many individuals across the region and tute of Applied Geosciences: Dr. Bo-therefore appreciation goes to each andlot Moldobekov (Co-Director), Ms. Liraevery one of them. Joldubaeva (Senior Scientific Adviser) and Ms. Aykanysh Omuralieva (Interpret-Acknowledgements go, first and fore- er, Kyrgyzstan); NGO Man and Element:most, to HFA Focal Points and National Ms. Svetlana Tuleyeva (Director, Kaza-Platform Coordinators3 who took time khstan); UNICEF Tajikistan: Mr. Salohid-to revise and provide information for thedin Shamsiddinov (Programme Assistant,report, and to the National HFA Coordi-Child Protection, Tajikistan); Committeenators and the UNICEF office represent-of Emergency Situations and Civil De-atives in the region for their time and ex-fence of Tajikistan: Mr. Kholiknazarovpertise in reviewing the relevant chapters Sultonnazar and Mr. Jomiev Mahmadali;and providing invaluable information and Act Central Asia: Ms. Gulbarchin Suyu-inputs through the online consultations. nova(Representative, Kyrgyzstan); UNICEF Kyrgyzstan: Mr. Tim SchaffterThe author would like to gratefully ac-(Representative); United Nations Resi-knowledge the organizers and par-dent Coordinator Unit: Ms. Aynura Alym-ticipants of both events attended - thebekova (United Nations Disaster Reduc-Community-Based Disaster Risk Man- tion Adviser, Kyrgyzstan).agement Workshop, based on the HyogoFramework for Action, in Bishkek, Kyr- At the South-Eastern Europe Civil Mili-gyzstan; and the South Eastern Europetary Emergency Planning Councils An-Civil Military Emergency Planning Coun-nual Meeting and Working Groups Work-cils Annual Meeting and Working Groupsshop on Civil-Military Emergency PlanningWorkshop on Civil-Military Emergency and Preparedness Development in thePlanning and Preparedness DevelopmentSEE Region:in the SEE Region, in Sarajevo, Bosnia Acknowledgementsand Herzegovina - for their flexibility to Ministry of Security of Bosnia and Herze-accommodate the last-minute registra-govina: Mr. Samir Agic (Assistant Ministertions and for their understanding and co-and Head of Civil Protection Sector) andoperation during meetings and interviews Mr. Milivoje Popovic (Head of Depart-which were held well after regular ses-ment for International Cooperation andsions4.Coordination within the Civil Protection Sector); Ministry of Internal Affairs ofThe list of interlocutors includes:Montenegro: Mr. Zoran Begovic (Assist- ant Minister and Head of Emergency Sit-At the Community-Based Disaster Risk uations and Civil Protection Department);Management Workshop: National Protection and Rescue Direc- torate of Croatia: Ms. Arabela VahtaricUNISDR Central Asia office: Ms. Goul-(Head of International Cooperation Divi-sara Pulatova (Senior Advisor) and Mr. sion); Ministry of Interior, General Direc-Abdurahim Muhidov (Project Coordinator,torate for Civil Emergency of Albania:HFA); Swiss Agency for Development Mr. Bujar Kapllani (Chief of Civil Protec-and Cooperation: Mr. Matthias Anderegg tion Coordination Sector) and Mr. Salih893 An HFA focal point is defined as the person officially designated by the State as the primary contact for the implementation of the HFA (UNISDR. HyogoFramework for Action. Available at: http://www.eird. org/wikien/index.php/Hyogo_Framework_for_Action_(HFA).4 Note -The list below includes titles and names as per the missions in 2009-2010.Children and disasters: Building resilience through educationChildren and disasters: Building resilience through education 6. Acknowledgements Kelmendi (Director of Planning and Coor- for their significant contributions to the dination CE); Ministry of Defence, Admin-report, as well as to Ms. Lely Djuhari istration for Civil Protection and Disaster(UNICEF RO CEECIS) for her guidance Relief of Slovenia: Mr. Branko Dervodeland support in the design and layout of (Deputy Director General) and Ms. Na-the report. tasa Horvat (Senior Advisor for Interna- tional Relations); Prime Ministry, General A sincere appreciation is expressed to Directorate of Emergency ManagementDeputy Regional Director Ms. Kirsi Madi, of Turkey: Mr. Hasan Ipek (General Di- Ed cation Advisor Mr. Philippe Testot- u rector) and Mr. Mehmet Bayazit, Mr.Ferry, Emergency Chief Ms. Andrea Fatih Akman and Mr. Adil Ciftci (Assist- James and Communication Chief Mr. ant Prime Ministry Experts); MacedonianJohn Budd from UNICEF RO CEECIS Protection and Rescue Directorate: Mr. as well as Head of the UNISDR Region- Kosta Jovcevski (Director) and Ms. Dus-al Office for Europe Ms. Paola Albrito. ka Celeska (Chief of Staff); MacedonianWithout their guidance and support, this Crisis Management Centre: Mr. Urim Ve- report may not have been possible. jseli (Head of Department for NATO and International Cooperation); Ministry ofFinancial contribution was also given by Emergencies and Affairs of PopulationGlobal Facility for Disaster Reduction Protection from Consequences of Cher-and Recovery. Last but not least, much nobyl Catastrophe of Ukraine: Mr. Igor appreciation goes to the Government of Kusliy (Deputy of Director); Ministry of the Netherlands for financial assistance State Policy for Disasters and Accidents through its global grant to UNICEF for of Bulgaria: Ms. Antoaneta Boychevathe Education in Emergencies and Post- (Head of International Cooperation,Crisis Transition programme, which sup- NATO and EU Department); and Ministryported the preparation of the initial re- of Interior and Administrative Reform, port. General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations: Brigadier-General Liviu-Viorel Every reasonable effort has been made Nemes (General Inspectors First Depu- to verify the accuracy of data and of all ty) and Mr. Vlad Petre (Expert Officer). the information presented in this report.The opinions expressed in this publication UNICEF and UNISDR wish to thank Mr.are those of the contributing authors and Sergej Anagnosti, who was the author ofdo not necessarily reflect the policies or the initial report that formed the basis for the views of UNICEF or UNISDR. this publication. We would also like to acknowledge the dedication and commitment of Mr. Asim Rehman (UNICEF RO CEECIS) and Ste- fanie Dannenmann-Di Palma (UNISDR Europe) in coordinating t...

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