Designing Blended Learning Experiences Brent A. Jones
Konan University, Hirao School of Management Presented at JALTCALL 2014 !
Abstract This workshop will walk participants through the course design and development process, with an emphasis on blended-learning curriculum for Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) contexts. Highlighting the work of L. Dee Fink (2003) in the area of Significant Learning Experiences, we will explore the different types of learning in Finks Taxonomy (foundational knowledge, application, integration, human dimension, caring and learning how to learn) while familiarising ourselves with his course design framework. Participants will be challenged to consider how each phase of this framework can inform and influence their own course design decisions, specifically the creation, adoption or adaptation of materials and methods to promote the acquisition of a new language as well as broader 21st century skills. Using examples of courses recently developed for a content-based English language program for university students in Japan, the presenter will discuss how Finks concepts of backward design (whats important now and years after the course, and what should students do in the course to succeed?) and forward assessment (imagining students in a situation where they would use the knowledge/skills, and focusing the learning on realistic meaningful tasks) have helped in both revamping existing courses and developing new ones. Participants will go away with several job aids to assist them in their own curriculum, course and lesson planning endeavours. !Starting Point - Questioning our own assumptions about learning and teaching. Clarifying which research paradigm (positivist, postpositivist, constructivist, critical/feminist, poststructuralist) we align with.
It sometimes (often) feels like we are speaking a different language . . . !Worldview & Theory of Knowledge (Hatch, 2002)
Worldview (Ontology) Theory of Knowledge (Epistemology)
Positivist Reality is out there to be studied, captured and understood
How the world is really ordered; Knower is distinct from known
Postpositivist Reality exists but is never fully apprehended, only approximated
Approximations of reality; Researcher is data collection instrument
Constructivist Multiple realities are constructed Knowledge as a human construction; Researcher and participant co-construct understandings
Critical/Feminist The apprehended world makes a material difference in terms of race, gender and class
Knowledge as subjective and political; Researchers values frame inquiry
Poststructuralist Order is created within individual minds to ascribe meaning to a meaningless universe
There is no Truth to be known; Researchers examine the world through textual representations of it
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Frameworks !(1) Change Management (Kotter, 2002; Heath & Heath, 2010) John Kotter - 8 Step Process of Successful Change - Create a Sense of Urgency - Pull Together the Guiding Team - Develop the Change Vision and Strategy - Communicate for Understanding and Buy In - Empower Others to Act - Produce Short-Term Wins - Dont Let Up - Create a New Culture !Chip Heath & Dan Heath - How to Make a Switch (See Appendix) Direct the Rider - Follow the Bright Spots - Script the Critical Moves - Point to the Destination Motivate the Elephant - Find the Feeling - Shrink the Change - Grow Your People Shape the Path - Tweak the Environment - Build Habits - Rally the Herd !(2) 21st Century Skills (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, n.d.)
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Core Subjects and 21st Century Themes Mastery of core subjects and 21st century themes is essential to student success. Core subjects include English, reading or language arts, world languages, arts, mathematics, economics, science, geography, history, government and civics. In addition, schools must promote an understanding of academic content at much higher levels by weaving 21st century interdisciplinary themes into core subjects: Global Awareness Financial, Economic, Business and Entrepreneurial Literacy Civic Literacy Health Literacy Environmental Literacy !Learning and Innovation Skills Learning and innovation skills are what separate students who are prepared for increasingly complex life and work environments in todays world and those who are not. They include: Creativity and Innovation Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Communication and Collaboration Information, Media and Technology Skills Today, we live in a technology and media-driven environment, marked by access to an abundance of information, rapid changes in technology tools and the ability to collaborate and make individual contributions on an unprecedented scale. Effective citizens and workers must be able to exhibit a range of functional and critical thinking skills, such as: Information Literacy Media Literacy ICT (Information, Communications and Technology) Literacy !Life and Career Skills Todays life and work environments require far more than thinking skills and content knowledge. The ability to navigate the complex life and work environments in the globally competitive information age requires students to pay rigorous attention to developing adequate life and career skills, such as: Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-Direction Social and Cross-Cultural Skills Productivity and Accountability Leadership and Responsibility !(3) Significant Learning Experiences (Fink, 2003) !Q1 - What are the SIX major categories in Finks Taxonomy of Significant Learning? ! _________________________ _________________________
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!Q2 - Give an example of Forward-Looking Assessment that you might use in one of your courses. !!!!Q3 - What are the steps in Integrated Course Design? !Initial phase: Building strong primary components !1
!Intermediate phase: Assembling the components into a dynamic, coherent whole !6
!Final Phase: Taking care of important details !9
!(4) The Experience Economy (Pine & Gilmore, 1999) !Concept 1 - Progression of Value !Concept 2 - Realms of Experience !!!
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Concept 1 - Progression of Value
Concept 2 - Realms of Experience !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! of 5 8
Examples - Use this area for notes. !Convergent/Divergent Tasks !!!!Peer Teaching !!!!Project Management !!!!Web Searches !!!!Self Study !!!!Your Ideas !!!!Other Considerations !Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation Theory Although we cannot take it for granted, it is likely that the learning tasks and outcomes involved in blended-learning and flipped classroom environments will be intrinsically motivating for learners. Deci and Ryan (1985) claim that learners interested in learning tasks and outcomes for their own sake rather than for external rewards (extrinsic) are likely to become more effective learners. The teachers role will involve helping learners find the part of the project that is intrinsically motivating for them. !Relevancy The real-life nature of blended and flipped experiences help ensure relevancy. At the same time, learners will gravitate toward parts of the projects that align with their own personal goals and values. Blended and flipped projects are also more likely to help fulfil learner needs at the upper levels of Maslows hierarchy of needs (1954), namely a sense of belonging, esteem and even self-actualization.
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Self-efficacy Individuals with high self-efficacy in a specific task are more likely to exert effort, and persist longer, than those with low efficacy (Schunk, 1990). A stronger sense of self-efficacy or expectations of mastery will lead to increased efforts (Bandura, 1977). On the other hand, low self-efficacy provides impetus to learn more about the subject (i.e. someone with a high self efficacy may not exert as much effort toward a task). Our role thus includes designing in opportunities for learners to experience success but to balance this with challenges at the outer boundary of their existing skills. The importance of aligning the challenge with existing skills is also highlighted in Cskszentmihlyi (1996). !Satisfaction Finally, students involved in blended-learning and flipped-classroom experiences are more likely to experience satisfaction than peers whose experiences are limited to the classroom and/or hypothetical problems. This satisfaction is related to the other motivational factors, and the rewards will be both intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic rewards will include increased self-esteem and feelings of accomplishment and agency, while extrinsic rewards will come in the form of peer recognition. !Bibliography Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman. !Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Press. !Cskszentmihlyi, M. (1996). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: Harper Perennial. !DeBono, E. (1999). Six thinking hats (2nd ed.). Boston: Back Bay Books. !Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum Press. !Dickinson, L. (1995). Autonomy and motivation: a literature review. System, 23(2), 165-174. !Fink, L.D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. !Haidt, J. (2006). The happiness hypothesis: Finding modern truth in ancient wisdom. New York : Basic Books. !Hatch, J. A. (2002). Doing qualitative research in education settings. Albany: SUNY Press.
Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2010). Switch: How to change things when change is hard. New York: Broadway Books. !Kotter, J. P. (2002). The heart of change: Real life stories of how people change their organizations. Boston: Harvard business School Press. !Mager, R. F. (1997). Preparing instructional objectives: A critical tool in the development of effective instruction (3rd ed.). Atlanta, GA: CEP Press.
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!Margolis, J. (1995). Historied thought, constructed world: A conceptual primer for the turn of the millennium. Berkeley: University of California Press. !Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper. !Mehisto, P., Marsh, D., & Frigols, M.J. (2008). Uncovering CLIL: Content and language integrated learning in bilingual and multilingual education. Oxford: Macmillan Publishers Limited. !Merrill, M. D. (2013). First Principles of Instruction: Identifying and Designing Effective, Efficient and Engaging Instruction. Pfeiffer. !Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., & Kemp, J. E. (2004). Designing effective instruction (4rd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. !Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d.). Framework for 21st century learning. Retrieved February, 2012 from http:// http://www.p21.org/ !Pine, J. & Gilmore, J. (1999). The experience economy. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. !Wiggins, G. (1998). Educative assessment : Designing assessments to inform and improve student performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. !Appendix - How to Make a Switch (Heath & Heath, 2010) For things to change, somebody somewhere has to start acting differently. Maybe its you, maybe its your team. Picture that person (or people). Each has an emotional Elephant side and a rational Rider side. Youve got to reach both. And youve also got to clear the way for them to succeed. In short, you must do three things: !--DIRECT THE RIDER Follow the Bright Spots. Investigate whats working and clone it. Script the Critical Moves. Dont think big picture, think in terms of specific behaviors. Point to the Destination. Change is easier when you know where youre going and why its worth it. !---------------------MOTIVATE THE ELEPHANT Find the Feeling. Knowing something isnt enough to cause change. Make people feel something. Shrink the Change. Break down the change until it no longer spooks the Elephant. Grow Your People. Cultivate a sense of identity and instill the growth mindset. !-------------------------------------SHAPE THE PATH Tweak the Environment. When the situation changes, the behavior changes. So change the situation. Build Habits. When behavior is habitual, its freeit doesnt tax the Rider. Look for ways to encourage habits. Rally the Herd. Behavior is contagious. Help it spread.
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