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  • 1. ENGLISH GRAMMAR Ma. Martha Manette A. Madrid, Ed.D. Professor Institute of Graduate Studies Panpacific University North Philippines Urdaneta City, Philippines September 22, 2012

2. What is Grammar? Grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express ourselves. The more we are aware of how it works, the more we can monitor the meaning and effectiveness of the way we and others use language. It can help foster precision, detect ambiguity, and exploit the richness of expression available in English. And it can help everyone--not only teachers of English, but teachers of anything, for all teaching is ultimately a matter of getting to grips with meaning. (David Crystal, "In Word and Deed," TES Teacher, April 30, 2004) It is necessary to know grammar, and it is better to write grammatically than not, but it is well to remember that grammar is common speech formulated. Usage is the only test. (William Somerset Maugham, The Summing Up, 1938) 3. What is Grammar? 2. In the 19th century, the two versions of the word went their separate ways, so that our study of English grammar today may not be quite as glamorous as it used to be. 1. During the Middle Ages, grammar was often used to describe learning in general, including the magical, occult practices popularly associated with the scholars of the day. People in Scotland pronounced grammar as "glam-our," and extended the association to mean magical beauty or enchantment. 4. What is Grammar? Prescriptive grammar (definition #2) refers to the structure of a language as certain people think it should be used. Descriptive grammar (definition #1) refers to the structure of a language as it is actually used by speakers and writers. 5. What is Grammar? Prescriptive grammarians (such as most editors and teachers) lay out rules about what they believe to be the correct or incorrect use of language. Specialists in descriptive grammar (called linguists) study the rules or patterns that underlie our use of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. 6. Interface The prescriptive grammarian, however, would be more interested in deciding whether or not it is correct to use interface as a verb. The descriptive grammarian would note, among other things, that the word is made up of a common prefix (inter-) and a root word (face) and that its currently used as both a noun and a verb. 7. The Value of Studying Grammar gaining a clearer understanding of how our language works gain greater control over the way you shape words into sentences and paragraphs help you become a more effective writer. 8. Descriptive vs Prescriptive Descriptive grammarians generally advise us not to be overly concerned with matters of correctness: language, they say, isn't good or bad; it simply is. As the history of the glamorous word grammar demonstrates, the English language is a living system of communication, a continually evolving affair. Prescriptive grammarians prefer giving practical advice about using language: straightforward rules to help us avoid making errors. 9. Grammar and Composition Attempts to integrate these two approaches to grammar--or, at the least, present them side by side. Lesson on Correcting Errors in Subject-Verb Agreement is obviously prescriptive 10. Ten Types of Grammar Concerned with "a faculty of language that provides an explanatory basis for how a human being can acquire a first language. The theory of grammar is a theory of human language and hence establishes the relationship among all languages. 11. Ten Types of Grammar Theory of competence: A model of the psychological system of unconscious knowledge that underlies a speaker's ability to produce and interpret utterances in a language." 12. Ten Types of Grammar 3. Mental The generative grammar stored in the brain that allows a speaker to produce language that other speakers can understand. All humans are born with the capacity for constructing a Mental Grammar, given linguistic experience; this capacity for language is called the Language Faculty (Chomsky, 1965). A grammar formulated by a linguist is an idealized description of this Mental Grammar." 13. Ten Types of Grammar 4. Pedagogical Grammatical analysis and instruction designed for second- language students. (1) pedagogical process-- the explicit treatment of elements of the target language systems as (part of) language teaching methodology; (2) pedagogical content-- reference sources of one kind or another that present information about the target language system; and (3) combinations of process and content." 14. Ten Types of Grammar 15. Ten Types of Grammar 16. Ten Types of Grammar 7. Theoretical Grammar or Syntax 17. Ten Types of Grammar 8. Traditional 18. Ten Types of Grammar 9. Transformational A theory of grammar that accounts for the constructions of a language by linguistic transformation s and phrase structures. the term 'rule' is used not for a precept set down by an external authority but for a principle that is unconsciously yet regularly followed in the production and interpretation of sentences. A rule is a direction for forming a sentence or a part of a sentence, which has been internalized by the native speaker. 19. Ten Types of Grammar 10. Universal The system of categories, operations, and languages to be innate. "Taken together, the linguistic principles of Universal Grammar constitute a theory of the organization of the initial state of the mind/brain of the language learner-- that is, a theory of the human faculty for language. 20. References: English grammar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Ten Types of Grammar - Grammar and Composition - 21. What is English Grammar? This includes the structure of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. The body of rules that describe the structure of expressions in the English language. 22. What is English Grammar? Standard forms of British English, American English, and Australian English. Generalized present- day Standard English, the form of speech found in types of public discourse including broadcasting, education, entertainment, government, and news reporting, including both formal and informal speech. 23. 1. Word Classes and Phrases Noun Determiner Pronoun Verb Adjective Adverb Preposition Conjunction Phrases Open Classes Closed Classes word classes that readily accept new members word classes that readily rarely admit new language 24. 2. Negation combinations of auxiliary verbs etc. with not have contracted forms: don't, can't, isn't, etc Also the uncontracted negated form can is written as a single word cannot On inversion of subject and verb (such as in questions, the subject may be placed after a contracted negated form: Should he not pay? or Shouldn't he pay? 25. 2. Negation Other elements, such as noun phrases, adjectives, adverbs, infinitive and participial phrases, etc., can be negated by placing the word not before them: not the right answer, not interesting, not to enter, not noticing the train, etc. When other negating words such as never, nobody, etc. appear in a sentence, the negating not is omitted (unlike its equivalents in many languages): I saw nothing or I didn't see anything, but not (except in non- standard speech) *I didn't see nothing. 26. 3. Clause and Sentence Structure Contains a subject (a noun phrase) and a predicate (a verb phrase in the terminology used above; that is, a verb together with its objects and complements). 27. 3. Clause and Sentence Structure Contains one independent clause and possibly one or more dependent clauses, although it is also possible to link together sentences of this form into longer sentences, using coordinating conjunctions 28. To learn more about the Eight Word Classes, please see also Parts of a Speech 29. History of English Grammar The first published English grammar was a Pamphlet for Grammar of 1586, written by William Bullokar with the stated goal of demonstrating that English was just as rule- based as Latin. Bullokar's grammar was faithfully modeled on William Lily's Latin grammar, Rudimenta Grammatices (1534), used in English schools at that time, having been "prescribed" for them in 1542 by Henry VIII. Bullokar wrote his grammar in English and used a "reformed spelling system" of his own invention; but many English grammars, for much of the century after Bullokar's effort, were written in Latin, especially by authors who were aiming to be scholarly. 30. History of English Grammar John Wallis's Grammatica Linguae Anglicanae (1685) was the last English grammar written in Latin. Even as late as the early 19th century, Lindley Murray, the author of one of the most widely used grammars of the day, was having to cite "grammatical authorities" to bolster the claim that grammatical cases in English are different from those in Ancient Greek or Latin. 31. Reference: English grammar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 32. THE END

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