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CHAPTER 10 CHAPTER 10 Socioemotional Socioemotional Development in Development in Adolescence Adolescence

G & D Ch. 10

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Socioemotional Development in Adolescence

Text of G & D Ch. 10

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Socioemotional Development inSocioemotional Development in


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Social & Personality Social & Personality DevelopmentDevelopment

Self-ConceptSelf-ConceptIdentity is the important issue

Able to distinguish between one’s self and others & take others’ views into account

Self-EsteemSelf-EsteemKnowing one’s self & liking one’s self are two different things

Liking one’s self is self-esteem

Liking one’s self involves seeing one’s self with all

your faults and accepting it

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Identity Identity FormationFormation

Identity v. Identity ConfusionStage where adolescents seek to find what makes them unique & distinctThey adopt different rolesConfusion comes by failing to organize around a central, unified core identityA good, stable sense of identity is the foundation for future development & choices, esp. marriage

Social PressuresCareer or occupationThe future us now up to themReliance on friends & peers for information

Psychological MoratoriumPeriod when adolescents take time off from coming adult responsibilities to explore different roles & possibilities

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Marcia’s Identity Marcia’s Identity DevelopmentDevelopment

Identity AchievementIdentity AchievementGone through a period of crisis & Gone through a period of crisis & developed relatively firm commitmentsdeveloped relatively firm commitments

Identity ForeclosureIdentity ForeclosureNever gone through an identity crisis but Never gone through an identity crisis but has become committed to certain goalshas become committed to certain goals

Identity MoratoriumIdentity MoratoriumCurrently going through an identity crisisCurrently going through an identity crisis

Identity ConfusionIdentity ConfusionNever had a crisis, is not in one now, & Never had a crisis, is not in one now, & has not formed or established goalshas not formed or established goals

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Identity, Race, & Identity, Race, & EthnicityEthnicity

Cultural Cultural Assimilation Assimilation ModelModelIndividual cultural identities should be Individual cultural identities should be assimilated into a unified cultureassimilated into a unified culture

Pluralistic Society Pluralistic Society ModelModelSociety is made up of diverse, coequal Society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve cultural groups that should preserve their individual featurestheir individual features

Bicultural IdentityBicultural IdentityDraw on the cultural identity while Draw on the cultural identity while integrating into the dominant cultureintegrating into the dominant culture

Identity Identity Formation & Formation & Racial & Ethnic Racial & Ethnic GroupsGroupsIdentity formation is more difficult with Identity formation is more difficult with racial & ethnic groupsracial & ethnic groupsThere are contradictory social valuesThere are contradictory social values

A society should be color-A society should be color-blind blind but opportunities differ for but opportunities differ for races races & ethnic groups& ethnic groups

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RelationshipsRelationshipsChanging Family RelationshipsSeeking autonomy: control over one’s life

Parents become frustrated over the increasing autonomy

Autonomy slowly grows during adolescence

Changes the relationship with the parents

The degree of autonomy varies with the number of children & the culture

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Family Family ChangesChanges• Generation Gap

The divide between parents & children in attitudes, values, aspirations, & worldview

The actual “gap” is very narrow

On social, political, & religious issues parents & adolescents tend to agree

Most adolescents & their parents get along quite well

There’s a deep love, affection, & respect for parents

Most relationships are more positive than negative

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Relations with Relations with PeersPeersSocial ComparisonSocial Comparison

Comparing & evaluating Comparing & evaluating opinions, abilities, & physical opinions, abilities, & physical changes of otherschanges of others

Reference GroupReference GroupGroups of people with whom you Groups of people with whom you compare yourselfcompare yourself

CliqueCliqueGroup of from 2 – 12 whose Group of from 2 – 12 whose members have frequent social members have frequent social interactionsinteractions

CrowdCrowdLarger than a clique made up of Larger than a clique made up of those who share particular those who share particular characteristics but who may not characteristics but who may not interact with each otherinteract with each other

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PopularityControversial AdolescentsThose liked by some peers & disliked by others

Rejected AdolescentsThose actively disliked & whose peers may react to them in an obviously negative manner

Neglected AdolescentsThose receiving relatively little attention from peers in either positive or negative interactions

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Peer RelationsPeer RelationsPeer PressureInfluence of one’s peers to conform to their behavior & attitudes

Adolescents are highly susceptible to the influence of peers

What to wear, who do date, movies to see, what group to belong to

Conformity to peers due to pressure to conform & seek an identity

Ultimately, conform less to peers & parents & develop their own autonomy

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Teen DatingTeen DatingLiking & LovingBy 6th grade “liking” a special person develops

By 10th grade ½ of adolescents have had a romantic relationship that lasted 2 months or longer

Gays & LesbiansMany date the opposite sex

Sociocultural Contexts & DatingValues, religious beliefs, & tradition are strong influences

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Rites of Rites of PassagePassage

Tribal Initiation Tribal Initiation RitesRites

In many native cultures In many native cultures when a boy or girl when a boy or girl enters adolescence, enters adolescence, they must undergo an they must undergo an initiation into the tribe. initiation into the tribe. At this time, they At this time, they assume the assume the responsibilities of an responsibilities of an adult.adult.

What remnants of adolescent initiation What remnants of adolescent initiation rites do we have in our modern rites do we have in our modern society?society?

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DelinquencyDelinquencyUndersocialized DelinquentsAdolescents raised with little discipline or with harsh, uncaring parental supervision

Not socialized appropriately & not taught standards of conduct to regulate behavior

Socialized DelinquentsAdolescents who know & subscribe to the norms of society & who are fairly normal psychologically

Adhere to social norms

Behavior Patterns16% of all arrests for serious crimes involve a person under 18 years

Undersocialized delinquents most likely to be diagnosed with attention-deficit disorder as a child & seen as less intelligent

May also have psychological disorders

Socialized delinquents are fairly normal psychologically

Most engage in petty crimes & stop at adulthood

Very influenced by peers & crimes occur in groups

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DepressionDepressionWho is Depressed?25% report feeling sad or hopeless for 2 or more weeks in a row so they stop doing normal activitiesGirls experience depression more often than boys

Girls’ coping skills different than boys’

Girls are more apt to turn inward, boys turning outwardAfrican Americans have higher rates of depression than Whites

Not supported by studiesChanges in the environment & social factors related to much depression

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Leading Causes of Death: Leading Causes of Death: 15 to 24 Year Olds15 to 24 Year Olds

Top 5Top 51. Accidents


3. Cancer

4. Heart Disease

5. Suicide

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SuicideSuicideWhy?3rd major cause of death among 15 – 24 age group

12.2 suicides per 100,000 adolescents

Girls attempt; boys complete

Increase in suicides in the last 30 years

Causes: Depression is a major cause (social & family problems, perfectionism, anxiety over the future, & alcohol & drug abuse