1.Hellenic Age to the Hellenistic Age The period began in 323 BC with the death of Alexander the Great
2. Many scientists and philosophers had accompanied Alexanders expeditions to the Near East They gained knowledge about plants, animals, geography and astronomy Acquired new skills and ideas from the different peoples of the empire-mathematics, and astronomy from the Near East, medical knowledge from EgyptNew Learning Continues 3.
Known as the center of the Hellenistic Culture
Found in Egypt in 332 BC by Alexander
After Alexanders death Ptolemy ruled Egypt. By 304 BC he established a new dynasty, whose rulers encouraged scholarship in Alexandria
They set up the greatest library and research center
The museum had botanical gardens, zoo, and an observatory for studying the stars
The library had about 500,000 books written on papyrus scrolls
The library had the works of Homer, the plays of Athenian Dramatists, and the medical books from Hippocrates school
Sacred writings of the Hebrews were translated into Greek
Euclid: organized earlier knowledge of geometry into logical system. He worked out hundreds of geometrical proofs, writing textbook that became the basic work in geometry
Eratosthenes: scholar and head librarian of Alexandria. Using geometry, he estimated the earths circumference with remarkable accuracy. He correctly declared that the oceans of the earth were connected, and he made accurate maps of the world he knew
Hellenistic Scientists 6.
Aristarchus: a mathematician and astronomer from the island of Samos. He argued that the sun was the center of the universe, but this idea was not accepted by other scientists. People used to believe in an earth-centered universe for another 1, 700 years
Archimedes: studied in Alexandria but stayed in the island of Sicily. His work in mathematics and physics led him to discover the principles of the lever and the pulley as well as calculating the weight of an object in water. He was also famous for the weapon known as catapult
Hellenistic Scientists 7. 8.
They believed that they could use reason to discover rules to explain and direct human conduct.
Hellenic Age: Philosophers had been concerned particularly with individual as a citizen of the polis
Hellenistic Age: Greek city-states were no longer the center of political life. Philosophers gave more thought to the individual as an individual rather that a member of the community
Philosophers new challenges 9.
Named after Epicurus whos a teacher and a writer
He advised against trying to gain wealth, political power, or fame, since such attempts increase anxiety
People should not give into strong emotions
Bodies should be free from pain and minds released from worry or fear
Epicurean: someone whose main interest is in pleasure, especially in eating
New rules in living 10.
Founded by Zeno who met his followers in an open walk way known as Stoa (a market place in Athens)
Socrates was one of the stoics
Emphasized on dignity, self-control and reason
A person should accept what life brings and remain indifferent to pain, pleasure and unhappiness
It influenced both Romans and the early Christians