Horse Rider Fall Safety Training Talk hosted by Horse SA

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    08-Feb-2017

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Horse Rider Fall safety Training

Principles, Science and Training Methods

It is not enough to know how to ride; you must know how to fall. --from a Mexican Proverb

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Lindsay NylundCert III in Fitness, Cert IV in Training, BSc PhysEd(Hons), MCom (HRM)5 x National All-around Gymnastic ChampionSilver Medallist in 1978 Commonwealth Games, Edmonton Canada: first international medal in gymnastics for AustraliaAll-around Finalist in 1980 Olympic Games, Moscow USSRAustralian Gymnastics Federation Athlete Roll of HonourNCAS Advanced Coaching Accreditation (Mens & Womens gymnastics)Former Head Coach WA Institute of Sport Mens Gymnastic ProgramAustralian Gymnastic Federation Coach of the Year awardCoach of State and National Champions, Commonwealth and Olympic gymnastsHorse Rider Fall Safety Training Program developed and refined over the past18 months.

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AgendaFall and Response TimesEmergency Response ActionFall Safety Skills / Video ReviewTumbling at SpeedTraining RequiredAir-vests

Spontaneity isnt random. . . . How good peoples decisions are under the fast moving, high stress condition of rapid cognition is a function of training and rules and rehearsal.

Malcolm Gladwell (2005)Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking

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Fall Times (1 sec = 1,000 milliseconds)Height 1.5 meters = 553 msHeight 2.0 meters = 639 msHeight 2.5 meters = 714 msJockey Fall Times

Jockey 1 1,000 ms(1 second)Jockey 2 1,000 msJockey 3 780 msJockey 4 700 msJockey 5 680 msJockey 6 680 msJockey 7 640 ms Jockey 8 640 msJockey 9 793 msJockey 10 501 ms (1/2 second)

Average 741 ms

Show Jumping / Cross-country Fall Times

Rider 11,334 msRider 21,100 msRider 31,097 msRider 4 900 msRider 5 800 msRider 6 800 msRider 7 724 msRider 8 667 msRider 9 600 msRider 10 533 ms

Average 855 ms

On average riders have about of a second (ranging from second to about 1 second) to respond in a fall incident.

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Response Time (RT)SIMPLE REACTION TIME (SRT)

STUDYSUBJECTS TIME (ms)Gavkare, A. et al. (2013) Undergrad Students / Athletes 134 - 144 msKosinski, R. (2008)University Students 160 - 190 msDeng, S. et al. (2006)High School Students 160 - 220 msHitchens, P. et al. (2011)Jockeys and Track-work Riders 192 - 215 ms

What is your Reaction Time? (Ruler drop test)

Catch distance (cm) Reaction Time (ms) Catch distance (cm) Reaction Time (ms)

Fast10 cm . . . . . . . . . .143 Good 21 cm . . . . . . . . . .207Fast11 cm . . . . . . . . . .150 Good 22 cm . . . . . . . . . .212Fast 12 cm . . . . . . . . . .156 Good 23 cm . . . . . . . . . .217Fast 13 cm . . . . . . . . . .163 Good 24 cm . . . . . . . . . .221Fast 14 cm . . . . . . . . . .169 OK 25cm . . . . . . . . . .226Fast 15 cm . . . . . . . . . .175 OK 26 cm . . . . . . . . . .230Fast16 cm . . . . . . . . . .181 OK 27 cm . . . . . . . . . .235Good 17 cm . . . . . . . . . .186 OK 28 cm . . . . . . . . . .239Good 19 cm . . . . . . . . . .197 OK 29 cm . . . . . . . . . .243Good 20 cm . . . . . . . . . . 202 OK 30 cm . . . . . . . . . .247

Average adult SRT is about 200 ms

RT = Reaction Time + Movement Time

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Emergency Response Action

250 ms (React)* + 250 ms (Brace) = 500 ms *(once the rider realises they are falling)RT = Reaction Time + Movement Time

Movement time = 250 msSUMMARY

There is no time for conscious analysis and evaluation of alternative courses of action

There is time for trained response action

Response action can be quick once trained

Response Time will improve with training

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Expectancy(warning signals)Bertelson (1967) found that where there was a warning of 100 to 200 ms, reaction time was quicker than when there was no warning.In an unexpected fall incident, additional time is needed (up to 200 ms) to change the focus of attention from riding to fallingRider response time, after training, is estimated to be on average 500 ms where there is some warning signal that the rider may fall and 700 ms where the rider has no warning signal. Allowing for individual and situational differences, this is expanded to a range of values 100 ms.

Hanging onto the Reins

Not all falls can be practiced but the advantage of training is to make some behaviour second nature crucial when there is only a split second to react.There is a tendency to hold on to the reins when falling. . . these images demonstrate potentially dangerous consequences for the rider.

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Example of gymnastichead first fall incidentVideo = 25 Frames per second

Hand position to reduce wrist / elbow injury

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Rotational/Head First FallTraining required

Basic session #Brace position (1)Dive roll drill (1)Standing dive roll (3)

AdvancedDive roll from fast run (5)Dive roll over obstacles(7)Bicycle Simulation (9)

Illustrations: SURVIVING THE UNEXPECTED: Fall safety training for horse riders (Nylund, 2016)

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Sideways Fall

4-point landing position

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Prone fall direction

4-point landing position

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Backwards Fall

Illustrations: SURVIVING THE UNEXPECTED: Fall safety training for horse riders (Nylund, 2016)

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Tumbling at SpeedNewtons First Law of Motion

A body at rest will remain at rest or a body in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by an external force.

Benefit of Tuck and roll:Some of the force is spent on the rollingthe length of time to come to rest is increased, andforces of impact are drastically reducedwith arms in brace position the forces of impact can be diverted away from the head and neck

Muscle tension to stay in tuck position, and arms in brace position to protect the head and neck

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Skills development

Brace PositionFeet First Landing Four Point LandingForward rollSideways Roll / Egg rollBackward RollJump and land from heightEmergency DismountDive RollStraddle / Flank VaultFall Simulation ActivitiesForward SomersaultPre-ride safety routines

Flank vault over a replica horseFlank vault + sideways roll

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Fall Simulation ActivitiesBasic exercises and drillsReplica HorseMechanical HorseBicycle simulation: forward dive roll at speed (advanced skill)

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Recommended TrainingLocationAny Location (mobile gym); Grassed area 20 meters x 20 metersCanopy for bad weather (protection from sun or rain)SchedulingRecommended 10 training sessions (group sizes of approximately 10)Can be done intensively, weekly, fortnightly, monthly, holiday programs)Recommended session timesJunior: Ages 8 to 12 years 1 hour Youth: Ages 13 to 17 years 1.5 hoursAdult: 18 years and over 2.0 hours

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Final Questions?

www.horseriderfallsafety.com.au

horseriderfallsafety@gmail.com

Tel: 0416 043 058

SURVIVING THE UNEXPECTED: Fall safety training for horse riders available nowIMPORTANT SAFETY NOTE:

A number of basic exercises, drills and skills can be practiced by riders unsupervised. Other skills must be learned under the supervision of a qualified fall safety instructor.

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