Humanities 100: Sculpture and Architecture

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Humanities 100, Visual Arts: Sculpture and Architecture, The Pyramids of Giza, The Sphinx, Taj Mahal, Ancient Rome, Ancient Egypt, Japanese and Chinese Architecture

Text of Humanities 100: Sculpture and Architecture

  • 1. Sculpture and Architecture Humanities 100

2. Sculpture - Sculpture is a three-dimensional form constructed to represent a natural or imaginary shape. - It is shaped from hard materials such as stone, wood, and metals like gold, brass and iron. 3. Types of Sculpture 1. Full Round 2. Relief 3. Linear 4. Kinetic 5. Assemblage The Thinker (French: Le Penseur) is a bronze sculpture by Auguste Rodin. 4. Free-standing or full-round It inhibits three-dimensional spacein the same way that living things do. Sculpture in the round cannot be appreciated from only a single viewpoint but must be circled and explored. Votive statue, Tell Asmar (Mesopotamia) 2750-2600 BCE 5. Roman bronze copy, 2nd century, Discobolis Kouros, marble, Archaic Greek, 600 BCE 6. The "Terracotta Warriors and Horses" is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210209 BCE and whose purpose was to protect the emperor in his afterlife. Estimates from 2007 were that the three pits containing the Terracotta Army held more than 8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses and 150 cavalry horses, the majority of which remained buried in the pits nearby Qin Shi Huang's mausoleum. Other terracotta non-military figures were found in other pits, including officials, acrobats, strongmen and musicians. 7. Relief Sculpture A relief sculpture grows out of flat, two- dimensional background, and its projection into three-dimensional space is relatively shallow. The back of the relief sculpture is not meant to be seen, the entire design can be understood from a frontal view. Relief sculptures are usually used in combinations with architecture as wall decorations. 8. Relief: attached to a surface High Relief Bas Relief 9. Akhenaten- New Kingdom (1350 BCE) Centaur & Laptih relief, metopes, Parthenon 10. Kinetic Sculpture A kind of structure where the parts or a certain part are/is movable. 11. Assemblage Sculpture A kind of structure where in the elements present are just assemble from things that are found in the surrounding. 12. By Lirio Salvador Drone Transit Mixed Media 85221 24 cm 2009 SANDATA NI BERNARDO CARPIO Mixed Media 108467 cm 2008 13. Lirio says "It's all about the merging of my native oriental culture and the present industrial environment that is slowly corrupting my native land". He creates his assemblage of musical instruments using day to day materials that are found in his present environment, including bicycle gears, drain cleaning springs and stainless steel tubes. Elemento in action 14. Elements of Sculpture Orientation- the position or direction of the object with reference to the background. I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the iron's point there seemed to be a little fire. He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart, and to pierce my very entrails; when he drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also, and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God. The pain was so great, that it made me moan; and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive pain, that I could not wish to be rid of it. The soul is satisfied now with nothing less than God. The pain is not bodily, but spiritual; though the body has its share in it. It is a caressing of love so sweet which now takes place between the soul and God, that I pray God of His goodness to make him experience it who may think that I am lying. --- St. Theresa of Avila The Ecstasy of St. Therese by Bernini 15. Elements of Sculpture -Proportion- the relative size of each part in connection to the whole. David by Michelangelo 16. Elements of Sculpture -Scale- how massive or how small the sculpture is in relation to the surrounding. The Sphinx of Giza Ancient Egypt 17. Elements of Sculpture -Articulation- manner by which we move from one element to the next (how the artist has repeated, varied, harmonized, & related its parts and the movement from one part to another) Capitoline Wolf - Romulus and Remus 18. Elements of Sculpture Balance- a state in which various parts form a satisfying and harmonious whole and nothing is out of proportion or unduly emphasized at the expense of the rest. Tomb KV5 Tomb of Ramses II / Ramses the Great 19. Elements of Sculpture Space and Mass a state in which various parts form a satisfying and harmonious whole and nothing is out of proportion or unduly emphasized at the expense of the rest. Venus de Milo and Venus of Willendorf 20. Elements of Sculpture Texture and Pattern- the way in which an artist depicts the quality or appearance of a surface Triste in bronze resin 21. Elements of Sculpture Color Flamingo - Alexander Calder 22. Methods of Sculpture 1. Subtraction / carving cut away unwanted raw material; carving away 2. Manipulation/ modeling shape material with the use of hands 3. Substitution/ casting material that is cast from one state to another 4. Assembling/ fabrication add an element to another element 23. Methods of Sculpture Carving is the process of creating a sculpture by cutting or chipping a form from a solid mass of material using some sort of chisel or carving tool. Because material is taken away from the mass, carving is known as a subtractive method of sculpture. The most common materials used in carving sculptures are stone and wood. In fact, most sculptures throughout history were made using this method. 24. Michelangelo's David, perhaps the most famous sculpture in history, was carved from a block of solid marble. 25. Granite sculpture by Verena Schwippert, 2007- By the Hands of Humans #3 26. Queen & son Pepi II, 6th dynasty Egyptian, alabaster 27. Methods of Sculpture Modeling is a process in which the artist uses a soft, pliable material such as wax, clay or plaster that is gradually built up and shaped until the desired form is attained. Unlike carving, modeling is an additive method, as the sculptor is continually adding material to the form. The material will typically be constructed atop some sort of metal frame or skeleton to lend support to the soft material, so it will be able to maintain its shape. 28. 2300BCE China, funerary storage jar 29. Mimbres pottery, fish with human headed animal and net trying to catch the fish, 1000 ce 30. Sung Dynasty celadon vase, 1000 CE 31. Manunggul Jar, Terracotta, incised and polychromed, 890-710 BCE, Palawan, Philippines. 32. Methods of Sculpture In the casting process, an artist creates a sculpture from a soft, malleable substance such as wax, plaster or clay. This sculpture will serve as the model that will be encased in plaster, silica or some other substance to make a cast. Eventually, a fireproof cast is produced that can be filled with molten metal such as bronze. When the metal cools, the result is a metal version of the original sculpture. The major benefit of casting is that the artist may be able to produce multiple copies of the sculpture using the same cast. 33. Sculpture by Kylo Chua (2009) 34. Akan Brass Weights: based on Islamic ounce. A wedding gift could be a set of weights for a bridegroom. 35. Cycladic: 17th century BCE. Gold Ibex statue. Lost wax 36. Africa: lost wax bronze, Benin kingdom, late 15th c. 37. Methods of Sculpture The most modern sculpting technique, also known as assembly or construction. The artist will take existing materials and attach them together in some fashion, with the resulting combination of materials forming the sculpture. Sculptures created through this process typically use found objects, such as scrap metal pieces that are welded together. A creation of art is done through joining or fastening. It also includes welding, gluing, stapling, soldering, nailing materials together. 38. Assemblage: assembling found objects in unique ways. Joseph Cornell 39. By Lirio Salvador 40. Kinetic Sculpture: movable parts (wind) Alexander Calder: the mobile 41. Famous Sculptors and Sculptures Gian Lorenzo Bernini was an Italian artist and a prominent architect who worked principally in Rome. He was the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture. In addition, he painted, wrote plays, and designed metalwork and stage sets. 42. Bernini's 1623 marble statue of "David" resides in Rome Apollo and Daphne, 1622 -1625 43. Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi (Fountain of the Four Rivers) is a fountain in the Piazza Navona in Rome, Italy. 44. Famous Sculptors and Sculptures Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni commonly known as Michelangelo was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Two of his best-known works, the Piet and David, were sculpted before he turned thirty. 45. Famous Sculptors and Sculptures Franois-Auguste-Ren or most commonly known as Auguste Rodin was a French sculptor. Although he is generally considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not set out to rebel against the past. He was schooled traditionally, took a craftsman- like approach to his work, and desired academic recognition, although he was never accepted into Paris's foremost school of art. 46. The Kiss is an 1889 marble sculpture by the French sculptor Auguste Rodin. The embracing couple depicted in the sculpture appeared originally as part of a group of reliefs decorating Rodin's monumental bronze portal The Gates of Hell, commissioned for a planned museum of art in Paris. 47. The Thinker (French: Le Penseur) is a bronze sculpture by Auguste Rodin, usually placed on a stone pedestal. The work shows a nude male figure of over life-size sitting on a rock with his chin resting on one hand as though deep in thought, and is often used as an image to represent philosophy. 48. Famous Sculptors and Sculptures Guill