The Essential Elements of Project Based Learning to Motivate and Engage Students

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<p>The Thinking Classroom: How to Incorporate Inquiry and Project Based Learning in Social Studies</p> <p>The Thinking Classroom: How to Incorporate Inquiry and Project Based Learning</p> <p>Please log onto the internet: session will provide teachers with the tools and knowledge to help students investigate the world, recognize perspectives, communicate ideas, and take action through project based </p> <p>learning. Teachers will learn how to craft meaningful driving questions to promote rich inquiry in order to prepare students to be college, career, and civic ready. Specific examples, tools, </p> <p>resources and suggestions will be shared.1K-12 Social Studies Consultants Ann </p> <p>Justyn</p> <p>Michelle</p> <p>Scott</p> <p>Section Chief K-12 Social StudiesFay GoreNC Character Education Coordinator</p> <p>Program AssistantBernadette TeamObjectivesDiscuss implementation of inquiry-based learning in the classroom.Understand effective guidelines of inquiry-based learning.Understand how to create a culture of inquiry in your classroom by effective questions that promote inquiry This session will present the essential elements of project-based learning in social studies classrooms to help teachers prepare their students to become college, career, and civic ready. Teachers will learn how to create a culture of inquiry in their classroom and the effective guidelines for project based learning within their social studies classrooms. </p> <p>3Essential Elements of Project Based Learning </p> <p>Note that this is one approach to inquiry. There are also other approaches such as problem based learning. 4</p> <p>Significant Content Critical Thinking</p> <p>Collaboration</p> <p>Communication Creativity and Innovation Identify important content knowledge by specifying standards that will be taught through the project. </p> <p>Every standard needs a measurable outcome. 21st Century Skills Must think about your standards and your skills (significant to teachers and students.) Need to be successful in the workplace Modeled, practiced, assessed, feedback </p> <p>It is recommended to choose 1-3 standards and choose 1-2 21st century learning skills for each project. </p> <p>5In Depth Inquiry Asking effective questionsMaking hypothesesSupporting answers with research and evidence Developing new questions as knowledge deepens</p> <p>So if we think about what our classrooms should look like it should involve these aspects if we are preparing our students to be college, career, and civic ready. </p> <p>Not google In-Depth inquiry and innovation is marked by students finding their own unique way of solving a problem </p> <p>Element of Innovation---not just repackaging information </p> <p>6Connecting Inquiry to The K-12 Social Studies Concept-Based FrameworkQuestioning is the heart of inquiry learning. </p> <p>Students must ask relevant questions and develop ways to search for answers and generate explanations.</p> <p>Emphasis is placed upon the process of thinking as this applies to student interaction with concepts, big ideas, data, topics, issues, and problems. </p> <p>Steve</p> <p>Effective Questioning is the key to inquiry. This should be something that students CANNOT simply go to google and find the answer or ask SIRI on their iphone to find the right answer. Inquiry often times involves multiple perspectives support with evidence. It takes students on a journey and involves a unique way of solving problems. </p> <p>Questioning in SS can often be connected to disciplinary literacy. Students can explore questions through the different lenses of the social sciences. How would a historian explore a question? An economist? A Geographer? Etc. </p> <p>Michelle's Comments : As you know in our past webinars and professional development trainings we have stressed asking students 3 different types of question in Unit Development. They are Factual, Provocative and Conceptual We know that asking higher order factual questions are great for helping students understand content knowledge. However for the purposes of this webinar we are going to focus on why Proactive and Conceptual questions are better QUESTIONS to drive inquiry in social studies. </p> <p>Resource for bullets (last bullet adapted for our CBCI information) - 7Effective Questions Captures the issues, problem, or challengeConsistent with curricular standards and frameworksOpen-ended and provocative </p> <p>Can arise from real-dilemmas that students find interestingGoes to the heart of a discipline or topicOrganizes Inquiry </p> <p>Adapted from The Buck Institute Ann </p> <p>MOST IMPORTANTLY , effective questions capture issues that are important to students. The planned daily lessons and activities, should be trying to help students answer the question. Whether it's a mini-lesson on small activity----the work needs to connect to the question. This is so that the day-to-day lessons and activities now have reason, relevancy and purpose. We also need to identify the issue or problem for which it posed within its historic context (e.g. Did the flapper have to degrade herself in order to liberate herself?)</p> <p>Effective questions must come from and be aligned to the essential standards so that it requires students to learn the necessary content </p> <p>Effective questions should be proactive --They must challenge students to rethink big ideas. This will lead to genuine and relevant inquiry, not just easy answers. Questions should NOT be googleable but should have unique answers for each students -engaging them in an in-depth inquiry. Proactive questions may have multiple perspectives but should be supported by evidence.</p> <p>4. Effective questions should be Real DilemmasThus, they Are relevant in multiple settings whether it be in the history and science classroom, the evening news or a students personal life</p> <p>This creates an interest and a feeling of challengeso that even the most reluctant student thinks, "Hmmm, I guess that sounds kinda cool.It helps student answer the question: "Why are we doing this?"This is the Golden Question that many administrators ask students when they are visiting. If your driving question is good, it can help connect that work so that students can articulate the reason behind daily lessons and activities</p> <p>5. Effective questions spark meaningful connections to prior knowledge and experiences.</p> <p>6. Effective questions organizes inquiry----and lead to more questions i8Different Types of Questions Philosophical: When is war justified?Products: How can we plan an event that creates or celebrates the history of our community? Problem Solving: Why do civilizations fail?Real World/Scenario - What responsibilities, if any, does the government have in maintaining a middle class?</p> <p>Adapted from The Buck Institute ANN </p> <p>There are four different types of questions for inquiry</p> <p>First, Philosophical questions that debate lifes big questions. An example of a philosophical question is: When is war justified? Next, there are questions that </p> <p>Next , there are questions that lead students to inventing or creating a products. An example of such a question would be: How can we plan an event that creates or celebrates the history of our community?</p> <p>Problem Solving questions pose a challenge for students to solve through research. An example of this type of question would be: Why do civilizations fail?</p> <p>Finally, by adding a real world role we are adding authenticity, rigor, and depth which enables them to build an understanding of their future roles and responsibilities. An example of this type of question may be: What responsibilities, if any, does the government have in maintaining a middle class?</p> <p>9Refining Questions Google-able </p> <p>Teacher Language</p> <p>Too Standards Based </p> <p>General</p> <p>Open Ended</p> <p>Engaging for StudentsRelevant Charge for Action</p> <p>We are going to talk about how to refine each one of these problems that many teachers run into when crafting good driving questions. </p> <p>Often times teachers make their questions to direct, not fully engaging to students and to general. We are going to look at some examples of how this occurs and practice with how to fix these mistakes. </p> <p>Michelle comments ---should include conversation about the higher thinking that can come from making some of your questions conceptual or provocative? </p> <p>Michelle's Question/Comment When should Essential Questions be asked? Should driving questions sometimes be strategically placed in the instruction or does it matter? Its important to think about when you should ask your driving question. Sometimes you cannot introduce it until some pretty important content knowledge may have been covered. At other times students are discovering that content knowledge through the essential question. </p> <p>10 Google-ableWhat are the major industries in our state?What were the causes of the American Revolution? What were the major forms of modern art? </p> <p>So as we think about INQUIRY--_What are the problems with these questions </p> <p>So do these questions encourage in depth inquiry? NO! They are google-able! --The problem we see with all of these questions is that they are very concrete. All students have to do is simply go to google and type them in and the answer will appear. --Questions do not require multiple activities, synthesizing, and analyzing much information. We want to go beyond the knowledge here and go to a deeper meaning. </p> <p>So lets talk some about driving questions in this model. 11Open Ended Why does our state produce the things it does? Could England have avoided the revolt of the American colonies? Does modern art reflect or inspire society? </p> <p>Steve</p> <p>Here is what we came up with. Rephrasing our questions in this manner help our students to use inquiry and research to answer the question. These types of questions are going to require multiple activities and the synthesis of different types of information before it can be answered.</p> <p>Notice that these are all proactive questions (Some are conceptual proactive and some are conceptual factual) </p> <p>12Abstract What is justice? When is war justified? What is a hero?ConcreteAre amusement park rides safe? Is our water at our school safe to drink? Can DNA evidence be trusted? Problem SolvingHow can we improve traffic flow at our school? Design Challenge How could we create a school mural to express our diversity within our school? History What is the price of progress? Was the American Revolution justified? What effect does the Civil War still have on us today? How can we bring peace to the Middle East? Social Studies What is the American Dream and who has it? How do immigrants meet the challenges of coming to a new country? Do victors really benefits from winning wars? How should we respond to terrorism? English Why are books banned? How do we persuade others? How does literature reflect the time in which it was written? Art How does art reflect its time? Is art worth its price? Should art be censored? Geography How does the place we live in affect how we live? How can we use geography to interpret the past? How do human actions modify the physical environment? Government Do we have too much freedom? What is the best form of government? How should criminals be treated? Should the Bill of Rights be revised? Science How will the land we live on change over time? Can we predict the weather? How can we stop the spread of infectious diseases? Should we produce genetically engineered foods? MathIs it better to buy or lease a car? How can we use probability to assess the state lottery system? Can we predict the growth of a websites use? Here are some broad examples of driving questions in the different disciplines. </p> <p>However you will notice that many of these questions have interdisciplinary ties. For example if we look at the question in the History strand What is the Price of Progress would easily tie this in with Math, Science, ELA, to build interdisciplinary connections that align with several cross curricular standards. Its important that we help students see that learning happens across multiple disciplines as they use inquiry? 13Sounds too Much Like a TeacherWhat did the ancient Greeks contribute to the development of Western Civilization?Should there be more development in wilderness areas in North Carolina? What were the causes of the Great Depression? </p> <p>Choose one question---how would you make it more engaging to students? Type your answer on the padlet </p> <p>While they are thinking: -We dont want our questions to sound too textbook. These questions are not going to motivate or excite students. They are not going to make the average student have a Need to Know them. We want our questions to be phrased so that students are still learning the content knowledge while gaining a deeper and more relevant meaning. 14Engaging for Students Did the ancient Greeks help make us who we are today? OR How Greek are we?Should a new shopping center be built on the land by the river near our town? Could the Great Depression happen again? </p> <p>Here are some possible revisions. 15Avoid Repeating the Standards How effective were various approaches such as boycotting, picketing, and sit-ins used to impact NC laws?</p> <p>8.C&amp;G.2.1Evaluate the effectiveness of various approaches used to effect change in North Carolina and the United States (e.g. picketing, boycotts, sit-ins, voting, marches, holding elected office and lobbying).6.E.1.1 Explain how conflict, compromise, and negotiation over the availability of resources (natural, human and capital) impacted the economic development of various civilizations, societies and regions.STANDARDS QUESTIONS Is China a powerful country today of its conflict compromise and negotiation over natural resources? </p> <p>AgainHow would you change one of these questions to make in not sound so standards based and academic for students? Type your answer of the padlet page</p> <p>While they are thinking: Many teachers feel the need to plug the content in the question. But are students going to get all of that content to actually answer the question (YES) How are you going to create lessons and learning experiences for them to </p> <p>Essential questions that sound likegeneralizations are not exciting and do not DRIVE the learning, which brings me to my next point.16Aligned to Standards without restating them Is breaking the law ever justifiable?</p> <p>Why is China a powerful nation? </p> <p>Are we like China or not? STANDARDS QUESTIONS</p> <p>Too General What is a hero? Which advertising techniques are most effective? Why did the explorers journey to the Americas? Two OptionsThis is our LAST one Change these general questions to a call to action for students or localize it to your own local community. (Wr...</p>