Unit 2 Lesson 05

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Text of Unit 2 Lesson 05

  • Lesson 5 The Camera Digital Video BASICS Schaefermeyer
  • Objectives
    • Explain how a video camera works
    • Explain how a lens works
    • Describe exposure
    • Describe types of camera supports
    • Explain how to compose your shots
    • Define field of view
    • Give details about camera moves
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • Vocabulary
    • Aperture
    • Camera
    • Charge-coupled device (CCD)
    • Composition
    • Convex
    • Depth of field
    • Digital zoom
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • Vocabulary (continued)
    • Exposure
    • Field of view
    • Focal length
    • Focal point
    • Framing
    • Head room
    • Imaging device
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
    • Lens
    • Nose room
    • Optical zoom
    • Overexposure
    • Pan
    • The rule of thirds
    • Tilt
    • Underexposure
  • How Does the Camera Work?
    • The camera is the most important piece of equipment when it comes to video.
    • Each camera has four distinct parts:
      • The lens
      • The imaging device
      • Storage
      • The viewfinder
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • How a Lens Works
    • The job of the lens on a camera is to direct light to the imaging device.
    • Light covers the lens surface when it enters, but focuses to a single focal point when it leaves.
    • Lenses are referred to according to their focal lengththe distance between the lens and the imaging device when the image is in focus.
    • Focal length in a video camera is measured in millimeters.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • How a Lens Works Optical and Digital Zoom
    • An optical zoom uses the lens elements to enlarge the image. This is a good zoom, although it is difficult to hold a steady image.
    • The digital zoom is the bad zoom because it is accomplished by enlarging the pixels in the middle of the image. This means you have bigger pixels, but fewer of them.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • About Exposure
    • The lens controls the exposurethe amount of light that reaches the imaging device.
    • The aperture is the part of the lens that determines how much light gets through.
    • The aperture allows less light in when it is shut down and allows more in when it is open.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • About Exposure F-Stop
    • The apertures opening size is measured in f-stops.
    • Common f-stops are f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, and f/22.
    • A smaller f-stop number means a larger opening.
    • Each f-stop setting allows half as much light in as the previous setting.
    • If the shot is overexposed (too bright), close down the aperture. If it is underexposed (too dark), open up the aperture.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • About Exposure Lens Care
    • Keep the lens cover on when the camera is not in use.
    • Use a clear filter and a lens hood if your lens will accept them.
    • Check the owners manual and clean lenses in an appropriate manner when needed.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • About Exposure Depth of Field
    • The f-stop helps control the depth of field. Depth of field is the area of the image that is in clear focus.
    • Depth of field:
      • increases when you decrease the size of the aperture, and decreases when you increase the size of the aperture.
      • decreases when the subject is closer to the camera, and increases when the subject is further from the camera.
      • increases when you decrease the focal length of the lens, and decreases when you increase the focal length.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • About Exposure Charge-Coupled Devices
    • The imaging device is the part of the camera that translates the light waves into an image. The imaging device in a video camera is a charge-coupled device (CCD).
    • Most consumer cameras have a single CCD, or chip, that contains rows of pixels. Higher end cameras have three separate CCDs that capture red, green, or blue light (RGB) using prisms and mirrors.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • About Exposure The Viewfinder
    • The viewfinder allows you to see what the camera is shooting. Most consumer cameras have small LCD screens as well.
    • Viewfinders on professional cameras are generally black and white, so the camera operator can obtain a clearer focus, while the viewfinders and LCD screens on consumer cameras are in color.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • About Exposure Storage
    • The storage for a video camera:
      • Tape: Most common storage method; advantages are that it is cheap, easily accessible, and can be stored indefinitely.
      • Hard drive: Advantage is that you can transfer the video directly to the computer without having to capture the video.
      • Flash memory: Advantage is no moving parts to jar loose. Downside is cost.
      • DVD: Advantages are playing it directly in a DVD player and low cost; downside is hard to edit and work with.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • About Exposure White Balance
    • White light is not always white.
    • White balance removes colored tints and prevents image from appearing red, green, blue, or whatever color the light gives off.
    • Automatic white balance on cameras doesnt always worklearn how to use white balance feature.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • About Camera Supports
    • Camera supports keep the camera steady without having to hold it with your hands.
    • Types of camera supports include tripod, pedestal, dolly, crane, jib arm, and steady cam.
    • If camera support isnt available, keep both hands on the camera, lean against something solid, and keep movement to a minimum.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • How to Compose Your Shots
    • Composition is the way things are arranged in the frame and determines not only what the audience sees, but the mood of the shot.
    • Good composition guides the viewers eye to the subject.
    • Composition guidelines include the rule of thirds, color, mass, lines, framing, simplify, and depth of field.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • How to Compose Your Shots Rule of Thirds
    • Divide the frame into nine equal size cubes with an imaginary tic-tac-toe board. The prime locations for good composition are where the horizontal and vertical lines intersect.
    • When framing, make sure to leave plenty of head room (amount of space above the subjects head), and nose room (amount of space in front of the subjects nose).
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • How to Compose Your Shots Color, Mass, and Lines
    • Color: Bright objects grab the attention of the human eye. Using color also helps balance an image.
    • Mass: Making the subject the largest thing in the frame draws the eye to it.
    • Lines: Use lines to lead the viewers eyes to the main subject.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • How to Compose Your Shots Framing, Simplify, and Depth of Field
    • Framing: Direct the viewers eyes to the subject by creating a frame within the frame using things like a doorway, window, or tree branches.
    • Simplify: Eliminate the extra things in the background to make it easier to pick out the subject of an image. Make the background interesting, but dont confuse the viewer.
    • Depth of Field: Change the depth of field to direct the viewers attention and control backgrounds.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • About Field of View
    • Field of view refers to how much of the subject is seen in the image.
      • Close