Why differentiate

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  • 1. Why Differentiate?A Look at the Pros, the Cons, & the Philosophy Behind

2. Objectives:Articulate the philosophy behind differentiationState the arguments for differentiating instruction in the classroomCiteresearch demonstrating the success of differentiationExplain the criticisms of and challenges of differentiating instruction 3. Things to Note about thisSession: This session was created in directresponse to survey commentsreceived in October Responses requested more informationabout the philosophy behind DI Responses questioned what researchsupports DI Responses questioned whether cons hadbeen considered 4. Things to Note about thisSession: This is not a differentiated session. We will not be modeling differentiatedinstruction in this session. Differentiated Instruction should be usedwhen it makes sense . It does not make sense all of the time. To achieve our objectives, direct instruction (a more formal presentation) makes more sense for communicating general information. 5. Things to Note about thisSession: Pair/Group work that occurs in thissession is based on intentionalpairings. The purpose of these pairings is toexpose participants to: People outside of their department/division It is our hope that these pairing will lead toexposure to new perspectives and ideas 6. PHILOSOPHY OFDIFFRENTIATEDINSTRUCTION 7. Differentiated Instruction isA systematic approach toplanning curriculum andIt is notinstruction for academically WHAT wediverse learners thatteach,provides students ofit isdifferent abilities, interests,HOWor learning needs equally we teach.appropriate ways to learn(Tomlinson & Strickland, 2005). 8. Howard Gardner states The biggest mistake of pastcenturies in teaching has beento treat all children as if theywere variants of the sameindividual and thus feel justifiedin teaching them all the sameway. 9. Differentiated Instruction is Good Teaching Its whatever conscientious teachers do to increase students learning over that which could otherwise be achieved by a one-size-fits-all approach. 10. ACTIVITY 1 With your partner: Pleaseexamine 1) Read each situation. the following2) Consider the examples takeninstructional choice from Rick made by the teacher in each example of Wormelis Differentiated article, Teaching inInstruction. the Middle.3) Determine if the Differentiatedchoice made by the Instruction: Settingteacher in each the Pedagogyexample was Straight (2011).reasonable.4) Share your opinion 11. Were the Instructional Choicesmade in each scenarioappropriate/reasonable? 12. Differentiated Instruction is Responsive Teaching We respond to what we perceive students need in order to learn, and if that differs from child to child, we adjust instruction accordingly rather than leaving them floundering. ( Wormeli, 2011.) 13. Differentiated Instruction is A Mindset Based on the belief that students can and will grow Growth will occur if lessons are structured to meet each students learning needs and maximize each students learning capacity.( Tomlinson& Strickland, 2005.) 14. Differentiated Instruction relates more to addressingstudents different phasesoflearning from novice to capable toproficient rather than merely providingdifferent activities to different groupsor students(Hattie, 2012) Lessons should be structured so allstudents are working at or +1 fromwhere they start (Strickland, 2012) 15. Differentiated Instruction isbased upon 5 PrinciplesQuality CurriculumQuality TasksRespectful CommunityContinual AssessmentFlexible Grouping( Tomlinson & Strickland, 2005.) 16. RESEARCH 17. ResearchDifferentiated Since it is a systemInstruction is a comprised of manysystematicparts, the researchapproach tomust be examined inplanning light of its partscurriculum and-Differentiation is notinstruction for a strategy by itself oracademicallya programdiverse learners (Strickland, 2012) 18. John Hattie (2009) Published Visible Learning in 2009 A synthesis of 800 meta-analyses(relating to 50,000 studies and 200+million students) Meta-analysis = effects in each study are converted to a common measure (an effect size), such that the overall effects could be quantified, interpreted, and compared Aimed at determining what influencesachievement(Miller, 2010; Strickland, 2012) 19. John Hattie (2009) Examines 138 Effect size of 1.0influences on =approx. 3 years ofadvancing achievement orstudent 45% improvementachievement Effect size of .4 or higher= desirable Puts results ofEFFECT IMPACTthousands of SIZEresearch studieson a continuum of -.3 - 0.0Negativeeffect sizes .1 - .3 Low Range of effect.3 - .6 Mediumsizes= -.34 to 1.44 .7 1.4 High(Miller, 2010;Strickland, 2012) 20. John Hattie (2009) Lets Have Them Exciting Among theThe Winners WinnersEffective classroom Challenging goals Not labelingFormativemanagement (.52)(.56) students (.60)assessmentfeedback (.90)Small Group Peer tutoring (.55) Using variedTeacher clarityLearning w/ teaching strategies (.75)appropriate (.60)materials and tasks(.49)Student Cooperative vs. Collaborative vs. Reciprocalengagement (.49)competitive individualistic Teaching (.74)learning (.54)learning (.59)Motivation (student Classroom Effective Feedbackhas appropriate cohesion (.53)(.73)skills/feels incharge of learning)(.50)Reducing anxietyModels of quality Teacher-student(.40) student work (.57) (Hattie, 2009; Strickland,relationships (.72) 21. Carol Dweck (2000) Carol Dweck found that many students seetheir intelligence as fixed Hattie found students self-reporting grades tohave an effect size of 1.44 Evidence that students predict their performance (accurately & low) on their past achievement Hattie found that there is a strong correlationbetween self-efficacy & achievement Achievement is likely to increase when students: Invoke learning Accept feedback Set challenging goals Compare themselves to subject specific criteria (not other kids) Self-regulate and exert control over their own learning (Hattie, 2009; Miller, 2010) 22. Fixed vs. Growth MindsetFIXED MINDSETGROWTH MINDSETSuccess comes fromSuccess comes frombeing smart effortGenetics& environmentWith hard work, anddetermine what we can appropriate support, mostdo in lifestudents can do mostthingsSome kids are smart andsome arent Intelligence can becultivatedTeachers cannot overridestudent profiles- You cant Teachers can overridechange someonesstudent profiles by settingintelligence high goals, providing highsupport, ensuring studentfocus- finding what makes(Strickland, 2012)school work for a student 23. Fixed vs. Growth MindsetTEACHERS WITH A TEACHERS WITH A FIXED MINDSETGROWTH MINDSETDetermines student ability & Focuses on providingteaches accordingly feedback that describesMakes quick judgments on student growth & is aimed atability w/ little evidencecorrecting errorsStresses normative Withholds judgments & waitsevaluation over growthfor improvementsLess likely to plan concrete Focuses on ensuring thestrategies for studenttask outcome can beimprovement improved by practice & hardworkMay comfort a student fortheir lack of ability Communicates start whereyou are, but dont stay there.Tends not to provide enough Taken from Cindy Stricklands presentation given at LTHS.time for practice and Strickland, C.A. (2012, November 15). Researchimprovementsupporting differentiation. [Presentation at LTHS]. ASCD: 24. ACTIVITY 2With your partner: Directions: Please Determine how a teacher with a fixed mindset would consider therespond and record your following scenarios opinion in the relevant from thebox. perspective of a Determine how a teacher teacher with a fixedwith a growth mindset would respond and record mindset, growth your opinion in the mindset, and your relevant box. own perspective. Determine how you would Read each situation respond (in your own with your partner classroom) and record your opinion in the and: 25. Growth Mindset is at the heart ofDifferentiation John Hattie suggests that teacherswould have mores success if theyaddressed students low self-efficacybefore trying to raise theirachievement. Carol Dweck believes this can bedone by promoting a growth mindsetin the classroom. Teachers acting as a change-agent(Miller, 2010) 26. CRITICISMSI. Learning StyleII. Observed ChaosIII. Catering too much to studentsIV. Implementation Challenges 27. Learner Profile One of the three LearnerProfile =types ofobservations about adifferentiation isstudent that affectsdifferentiation byhis/her learningLEARNER PROFILE including Family dynamics Can include, but notHealth (physical & emotional)limited to,information Technological skillsconcerning learning Personal interestsstylesGenderLearning Styles(Wormeli, 2011.) 28. Critics of Learning Styles Schmoker, Willingham, Hattie, and otherpsychologists, neuroscientists, and sociologistshave questioned research on learning styles They are concerned because they believe: No agreement on what constitutes a learning style Few studies about the various learning style models Many studies rely on students self-reporting their style Little validity & reliability amongst most of the learning styleinstruments Many items on these instruments can be biased No evidence from neuroscience to validate the concept ofa learning style Use of learning styles to label a student can be limiting(self-fulfilling prophecy) (Tomlinson, 2011) 29. Critics of Learning Styles Learning styles are neither the definitionnor the primary component ofdifferentiated instruction. Carol Ann Tomlinson wrote in 2010, thegoal of differentiation is to provideoptions for learning and to help studentsbecome aware of what supports theirlearning at a given time. (Wormeli, 2011.) 30. Critics of Learning StylesCaution They caution: We should not use invalid and unreliableinstruments to permanently categorize a studentas having a specific learning style We should not teach students in only theirpreferred styl