Avian Influenza and poultry meat

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Is it safe to eat poultry & eggs from areas affected by avian influenza

Text of Avian Influenza and poultry meat

  • Is it safe to eat poultry & eggs from areas affected by avian influenza*zoonotic/SL 1

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  • Dr. Zuhair Ahmad AL- Chalabi Ass. Prof. M.Sc., PhD Meat Science &meat Hygiene *zoonotic/SL 1

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  • Avian Influenza (Highly Pathogenic)Fowl plague, Fowl pest, Fowl disease, Fowl or bird grippe11/13/2009*EZFBD- PPT

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  • Influenza VirusFamily OrthomyxoviridaeThree main typesType AMultiple speciesType BHumansType C Humans and swine11/13/2009*EZFBD- PPT

    EZFBD- PPT

  • Surface Antigens and Subtypes16 HA and 9 NA for influenza AAll in aquatic birdsHemagglutinin (HA)Function: Sites for attachment to infect host cellsNeuraminidase (NA)Function: Remove neuraminic acid from mucin and release from cell11/13/2009*EZFBD- PPT

    EZFBD- PPT

  • Influenza A11/13/2009*EZFBD- PPT

    EZFBD- PPT

  • Influenza AMultiple speciesHumansAvian InfluenzaMost virulent groupClassification by surface antigens into subtypesHemagglutinin (H or HA)Neuraminidase (N or NA)

    11/13/2009*EZFBD- PPT

    EZFBD- PPT

  • Influenza BMostly humansCommonLess severe than AEpidemics occur less often than AHuman seasonal vaccineTwo strains of type AOne strain of type B11/13/2009*EZFBD- PPT

    EZFBD- PPT

  • Influenza CHumans and swineDifferent pattern of surface proteinsRareMild to no symptomsBy age 15, most have antibodies11/13/2009*EZFBD- PPT

    EZFBD- PPT

  • Risk Question

    What is the risk of introducing Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza(LPAI) virus of H5 or H7 subtypes to a country that import table eggs or poultry meat for human consumption from a country NOT known to be free from LPAI

    1 *zoonotic/SL 1

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  • Resistance of AI virus to physical and chemical actionTemp. : At 80c the virus is killed in 1 minutes.PH : inactivated by < PH 5 or > PH 8.Disinfection : inactivated by formalin, iodine ,sodium hypochlorite (1-2ppm),phenolic and Quaternary compounds.Direct sunlight will also inactivate the virus.AI virus readily inactivated by drying.*zoonotic/SL 1

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  • Facts about layer hens There is no data in the literature to INDICATE that LPAI infection may occure in domestic poultry WITHOUT causing ANY clinical sings whatsoever.

    Some studies consider that LPAI virus infection of layer hens MAY results in death loss (6-10%) and a drop of egg production ranged from 3% to 30-%.

    Virus replicated in the cell lining of the intestinal tract and is excreted in high concentration in faeces up to 10^8.7 EID50/g.

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  • In less favorable environment, such as in faecal material, the virus survives no more than 24 to 48 hours.

    Most viral shedding from infected poultry STOP after seroconversion , which usually takes up to 14 days after infection.

    There is NO evidence that AI virus is transmitted vertically.

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  • CONCLUSIONNO introduction of LAPI to poultry operation in ANY country has ever been attributed to IMPORTS of infect table eggs.*zoonotic/SL 1

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  • Eggs natural defence against avian influenza virus

    High PH of the albumen:- The PH of freshly laid egg white ranges between 7.6- 7.9, but carbon dioxide loss through the porous shell makes the albumen more alkaline (PH 9).Anti-microbial enzymes:- (may have some antiviral activity against AI virus)1- Avidin/ Biotin Binding Protein

    2-Ovotransferrin/ Iron Binding Protein

    3- Lysozyme / The vitelline membrane ,albumen and Chalazae contain lysozyme.

    4-Sialic acid / A carbohydrate found in egg (N-acetylneuraminc acid) may have an inhibitory effect on rotavirus and AI virus.*zoonotic/SL 1

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  • CONCLUSIONSNatural defence mechanisms of eggs have several reduction steps, which resulted in NEGLIIBLE likelihood of AI virus presence IN/ON poultry table eggs being transmitted .Proper cooking of eggs effectively eliminate the risk of the virus.

    Typically eggs are pasteurized using HTST technology used for milk.

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  • POULTRY MEATIS it safe to eat poultry meat from areas affected by avian influenza?*zoonotic/SL 1

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  • Example of poultry processing HACCP Flow Diagram *zoonotic/SL 1

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  • In a poultry processing ,the main critical control points(CCP) that can affect AI virus are:-Scalding (CCP1) Following bleeding ,the birds go through scalding tanks .the tanks contain hot water that soften the skin so that the feather be removed.Soft-scald (50-52c for 90 Sec.)Hard- scald ( 56-63c for 60 Sec.)*zoonotic/SL 1

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  • 2- Onset of Rigor Mortis (CCP 2) After death of the animal, anaerobic metabolism reduces the PH from about 7.2 in muscle to 5.8 in meat and stiffness develop (rigor mortis).

    The PH of avian muscle decline much faster from 7.2 to 5.2 within ~2 hours.

    Cathapsine, contained in lysosomes are released as PH drops. *zoonotic/SL 1

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  • Immersion chilling (CCP3) Super chlorination of the chill water 50ppm.Flow rate : approximately to 1 gallon/bird.Flow direction : counter-current.Temp. -- Max. water temp. at carcass entry point is 16c. -- Max.water temp..at carcass exit point is 4c. *zoonotic/SL 1

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  • CONCLUSIONS

    There is only a very small chance that the poultry meat will be contaminated with AI virus.

    Without doubt ,these points (ccp1,ccp2,and ccp3) are the most effective intervention strategies that processors have for the safety of raw products.*zoonotic/SL 1

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  • Cooking process

    Normal cooking temp. more than 80c and time more than 30 minute will kill ANY virus in food products.

    The use of spices in cooking.*zoonotic/SL 1

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  • General CommentsThere is no evidence that Avian influenza is a food-borne disease.Human risk appears to results from EXPOSURE to live poultry rather than handling ,cooking or eating poultry meat.People need to have close CONTACT with infected birds or poultry manure to get avian influenza.

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  • No reports have been published indicating human-to-human spread ;all human infections detected to date have resulted from direct contact between human and poultry.

    There is minimal risk from consuming the (contaminated) eggs or meat provided it is well cooked.*zoonotic/SL 1

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  • The advice on food hygiene should always be followed. This includes:-Through hand washing and disinfection.Through cooking of poultry products.Prevention of cross-contamination.

    The decisions on bans on imports are made by the government after due consideration of all the factors.

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  • The intention of this decision is to minimize the risk of release of virus particles in the country to infect the wild and domestic poultry.

    The spread of this disease from one country to another can occur as a result of BIRD TRADE (live) or through MIGRATORY BIRD infected with the virus .

    Thank you.*zoonotic/SL 1

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    ***Disease from highly pathogenic avian influenza is also known as fowl plague, fowl pest, Brunswick bird plague, fowl disease, fowl or bird grippe.*Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae. They are classified into three main types. Influenza type A viruses affect multiple species. Influenza types B and C both infect humans, but type C is also known to infect swine. We will discuss each of these further in the next few slides. (Photo: ISU-FAD course section by Dr. Corrie Brown)*There are 15 different HA and 9 different NA antigens in influenza A. All of these different antigens can be found in aquatic birds. The HA is the hemagglutinin antigen and it functions as the site for attachment to host cells. The NA or neuraminidase antigen serves to remove neuraminic acid from mucin allowing the virus to be released from the cell.*This picture depicts the major antigenic components of the influenza A virus. The virus is composed of eight segments of RNA. Having segments makes it easier for reassortment to occur. The yellow bars represent the hemagglutinin (HA) part of the virus. The pink protrusions represent neuraminidase (NA).

    *Influenza type A infects multiple species. Several human influenza strains are type A while all avian strains are type A. They are considered the most virulent group, although not all strains cause clinical disease. Type A influenza viruses are classified into subtypes based on two surface antigens known as hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N), sometimes also referred to as HA and NA respectively.*Influenza type B viruses infect mostly humans. They are not categorized into subtypes. They are quite common, but clinical disease is usually less severe than influenza A. Epidemics do occur, but are seen less often than type A. Human seasonal vaccines usually contain two strains of influenza A and one strain of B.*Influenza type C has been identified in both humans and swine. Their pattern of surface proteins are different than the othe