Cyber crime

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CYBER CRIMEWhat is Cyber crime ?Cyber crime is a crime committed over the Internet.It could be against the government, property and against any person in various forms.

The law enforcement agencies are facing difficulties in dealing with cyber crime.

In India, Information Technology Act, 2000 is the legislation that deals with issue related to cyber crime.

HISTORY The first recorded cyber crime took place in the year 1820 in FRANCE Joseph-Marie Jacquard, a textile manufacturer in France, produced the loomThis device allowed the repetition of a series of steps in the weaving of special fabrics.This resulted in a fear amongst employees that their tradiotional employment was being threatened They committed acts of sabotage(Destruction of property or obstruction of normal operations, as by civilians or enemy agents in time of war.) to discourge further use of the new technology

IntroductionAdvancements in modern technology have helped countries develop and expand their communication networks, enabling faster and easier networking and information exchange. Currently, there are nearly 2 billion internet users and over 5 billion mobile phone connections worldwide. Every day, 294 billion emails and 5 billion phone messages are exchanged.As businesses and societies in general increasingly rely on computers and internet-based networking, cyber crime and digital attack incidents have increased around the world.These attacks generally classified as any crime that involves the use of a computer network include financial scams, computer hacking, downloading pornographic images from the internet, virus attacks, e-mail stalking and creating websites that promote racial hatred.The first major instance of cyber crime was reported in 2000, when a mass-mailed computer virus affected nearly 45 million computer users worldwideIn 2011, at least 2.3 billion people, the equivalent of more than one third of the worlds total population, had access to the internet Over 60 per cent of all internet users are in developing countries, with 45 per cent of all internet users below the age of 25 years.In the hyperconnected world of tomorrow, it will become hard to imagine a computer crime, and perhaps any crime, that does not involve electronic evidence linked with internet protocol (IP) connectivity.In 2009, the cost of information lost to cyber crime nearly doubled, from US$265 million in 2008 to US$560 millionCYBER CRIMINALSKids (age group 9-16 )

Organized hacktivists

Disgruntled employees

Professional hackers (corporate espionage)TYPES OF CYBER CRIMEFinancial crimes- cheating, credit card frauds , money laundering forgery etc .Sale of illegal articles: Online gambling Intellectual Property crimes Theft of information contained in electronic formE-mail bombing Data DiddlingSalami attacksE-mail spoofingCyber defamationHackingTrojan attacksPhishing

E-mail spoofing

The sender address and other parts of the e-mail header are alteredForm , Return-Path and Reply to fieldsAlthough the e-mail appears to come from the address indicated in the Form field it actually comes from another sourcePrevention Antivirus Use cryptographic signatures E-mail spoofing

Salami AttackA series of minor attacks that togrther results in a larger attackUsed for financial crimes in which criminals steal money or resources a bit at a time from a system Preventation Find indications of an attackRandom auditsDont ignor what appears to be errors in computer-based financial systemsData DiddlingChanging of data before or during entry into the computer system Forging or counterfeiting documents used for data entryExchanging valid disks and tapes with modified replacementsPrevention Regular auditsSupervising employees

Cyber crime a growing challenge for governments In a digital age, where online communication has become the norm, internet users and governments face increased risks of becoming the targets of cyber attacks. As cyber criminals continue to develop and advance their techniques, they are also shifting their targets focusing less on theft of financial information and more on business espionage and accessing government information. To fight fast-spreading cyber crime, governments must collaborate globally to develop an effective model that will control the threat.

Cost of cyber crime in india 29.9 million people felt victim to cyber crime$4 billion in direct financial losses,$3.6 billion in time spent resolving the crime,4 in 5 online adults (80%) have been a victim of cybercrime17% of adults online have experienced cybercrime on their mobile phones.LAW ENFORCEMENTSection 66: Hacking Destruction, deletion, alteration, diminishing value or utility or injuriously affecting informaion residing in a computer resourcePunishment Imprisonment up to three years, and fine up to 2 lacSection 70: Protected SystemSecuring unauthorised access or attempting to secure unauthorised access to protected system Punishment Imprisonment up to 10 years and fineSec 67: PronographyPublishing or transmitting or causing to be published in the electronic formObscene materialPunishment On first conviction Imprisonment of either description up to five years and fine up to 1 lac rupeesOn subesquent conviction Imprisonment of either description up to 10 years and fine up to 2 lac rupees

Sending threatening messages by e-mail Sec 503 IPCSending offensive messages by e-mail

Sec 499, 500 IPCForgery of electronic recordsSec 463, 470, 471 IPCBogus websites,cyber frauds Sec 420 IPCEmail spoofingSec 416, 417, 463 IPCOnline sale of drugsNDPS ActWeb-JackingSec 383 IPCOnline sale of arms Arms ActDispute Resolution in Cyberspace Indian Laws

Information Technology Act, 2000Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008Cyber crime investigation cellCommunications convergence Bill, 2001Cyber security forum-Joint collaboration between India and U.S.E-Governance and E-PolicyPunishments

International initiatives Arbitration and Mediation- Conventions World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO)Council of Europe Convention on cyber crimeCyber Tribunals

Prevention Never disclose your personal information publicly on websites. This is as good as disclosing your identity to strangers in public placeAlways avoid sending any photograph online particularly to strangers and chat friends as there have been incidents of misuse of the photographsNever enter your credit card number to any site that is not secured, to prevent its misuseAlways keep a watch on the sites that your children are accessing to prevent any kind of harassment or depravation in children Always use latest and updated Antivirus software to guard against virus attacksTo prevent loss of data due to virus attacks, always keep back up of your data.It is advisable to use a security program that gives control over the cookies and send information back to the site, as leaving the cookies unguarded might prove fatalUse of firewalls proves beneficialWebsite owners should watch traffic and check any irregularity on the site. Putting host-based intrusion detection devices on servers will serve the purposeSolution An important question arises that how can these crimes be prevented A number of techniques & solution have been presented but the problem still exists & are increasing day by dayAntivirus & Anti Spyware Software: Antivirus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify, thwart & eliminate computer viruses & other malicious software. Anti spy wares are used to restrict backdoor program, trojans & other spy wares to be installed on the computer

Firewalls: A firewall protect a computer network form unauthorized access. Network firewalls may be hardware devices, software programs, or a combination of the two. A network firewall typically guards an internal computer network against malicious access from outside the networkCyber security must be pursued with the same intensity as efforts to eradicate global poverty or tackle climate change

CONCLUSION.Indian laws are well drafted & are capable of handling all kinds of challenges as posed by cyber criminals. However, the enforcement agencies are required to be well versed with the changing technologies & lawsAs internet technology advances so does the threat of cyber crime. In times like these we must protect ourselves from cyber crime. Anti-virus software, firewalls & security patches are just the beginning. Never open suspicious e-mails & only navigate to trusted sites.THANK YOUPRACHI