Death and Disease Rates of Vegetarians and Vegans – Summary of Prospective Cohorts, 1960–2014

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My notes on "Death and Disease Rates of Vegetarians and Vegans Summary of Prospective Cohorts, 19602014." Parts of this slidedeck were adapted from the work put out by Jack Norris at


  • DEATH AND DISEASE RATES OF VEGETARIANS AND VEGANS Summary of Prospective Cohort Studies, 19602014 1Notes by Jussi Riekki
  • Death Rates (Standardized Mortality Ratios, SMRs) Vegetarians and vegans die at about half the rates of the overall populations in their regionreasons for this may include lower smoking rates, healthier diet and lifestyle in general, healthy volunteer effect (i.e. healthy people are more likely to volunteer for studies than unhealthy people). EPIC-Oxford 52% Adventist Mortality Study 49% Health Food Shoppers 56% Oxford Vegetarian Study 46% Heidelberg Study 48% 2
  • Why Vegetarians Might Live Longer? Lets take a look at the research done on mortality and disease rates of vegetarians. But rst... 3
  • Hierarchy of Evidence (Micha & Mozaffarian, 2010) Randomized Trials of Risk Factors! ! ! Retrospective Case-Control Studies of Disease Outcomes! ! ! Animal Studies, Ecologic Studies, Prevalence Reports! ! ! Case series / reports Randomized Trials! and Prospective Cohorts! of Disease Outcomes Our Focus is on! Prospective Cohorts of! Disease Outcomes 4
  • Different Diets, Similar Lifestyles. Prospective Cohort Studies, 19602014 Study Country Years Key et al. 1999 Huang et al. 2012 Adventist Mortality USA 196065 Included Included Adventist Health USA 197497 Included Included Health Food Shoppers UK 197688 Included Included Oxford Vegetarian UK 19812000 Included Included Heidelberg Germany 197899 Included Included EPIC-Oxford UK 1993 Not included Included Adventist Health Study 2 USA 2002 Not included Not included Meta-Analyses 5
  • Keep in Mind: Most of the Cohorts had Low Mortality Rates Overall Note that for the comparison of the mortality between vegetarians and non vegetarians reported here, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for all causes of death were considerably