Eyes Wide Shut: What Do Your Passwords Do When No One is Watching
Paula JanuszkiewiczCQURE: Director of Consulting,; Security ExpertCQURE Academy: TrainerMVP: Enterprise Securitywww.cqureacademy.com
Hacking Live Workshop 2017
Used to group one or more Web Applications
Purpose: Assign resources, serve as a security sandbox
Use Worker Processes (w3wp.exe)
Their identity is defined in Application Pool settings
Process requests to the applications
Passwords for AppPool identity can be decrypted even offline
They are stored in the encrypted form in applicationHost.config
Conclusion: IIS relies its security on Machine Keys (Local System)
Demo: Application Pools
Class names for keys from HKLM\SYSTEM\CCS\Control\Lsa
Store configuration in the registry
Always need some identity to run the executable!
Local Security Authority (LSA) Secrets
Must be stored locally, especially when domain credentials are used
Can be accessed when we impersonate to Local System
Their accounts should be monitored
If you cannot use gMSA, MSA, use subscription for svc_ accounts (naming convention)
Conclusion: Think twice before using an Administrative account, use gMSA
The above means:
To read the clear text password you need to struggle!
Are cached credentials safe?
DK = PBKDF2(PRF, Password, Salt, c, dkLen)
Microsofts implementation: MSDCC2=
PBKDF2(HMAC-SHA1, DCC1, username, 10240, 16)
Before the attacks facilitated by pass-the-hash, we can only
rejoice the "salting" by the username.
There are a number pre-computed tables for users as
Administrator facilitating attacks on these hashes.
There is actually not much of a difference with XP / 2003!
No additional salting.
PBKDF2 introduced a new variable: the number of
iterations SHA1 with the same salt as before (username).
The number of iterations in PBKDF2, it is
configurable through the registry:
DWORD (32) NL$IterationCount
If the number is less than 10240, it is a multiplier
by 1024 (20 therefore gives 20480 iterations)
If the number is greater than 10240, it is the
number of iterations (rounded to 1024)
Demo: Cached Credentials
Based on the following components:
Password, data blob, entropy
Is not prone to password resets!
Protects from outsiders when being in offline access
Effectively protects users data
Stores the password history
You need to be able to get access to some of your passwords from the past
Conclusion: OS greatly helps us to protect secrets
Demo: Classic DPAPI
Demo: DPAPI Taken Further
Demo: RDG Passwords
Location Plaintext passwords
NT Hash LM Hash TGT Windows logon
Security Accounts Manager (SAM)
- Yes Maybe1 - -
Local Security Authority
Subsystem (LSASS) process
Yes Yes Yes Yes -
Active Directory Database - Yes Maybe1 - -
The Credential Manager
Maybe2 - - - -
LSA Secrets in the registry Service Accounts,
Scheduled Tasks, etc.
- - -
HKLM\Security - - - - Yes
Windows 10 with VSM enabled - Yes / No3 Yes/ No3 No4 -
PowerBroker Password Safe
Martin Cannard Product Manager
Comprehensive Security Management
Secure and automate the process for managing privileged account passwords and keys
Control how people, services, applications and scripts access managed credentials
Auto-logon users onto RDP, SSH sessions and apps, without revealing the password
Record all user and administrator activity (with keystrokes) in a comprehensive audit trail
Alert in real-time as passwords, and keys are released, and session activity is started
Monitor session activity in real-time, and immediately lock/terminate suspicious activity
Block & Alert when SSH commands are entered during privileged sessions
Privileged Password Management
People Services A2A
Native desktop tool (MSTSC/PuTTY etc.) connects
to Password Safe which proxies connection through
to requested resource
Protected ResourcesUser authenticates to Password Safe and requests
session to protected resource
RDP/SSH session is proxied through the Password
Safe applianceHTTPS RDP / SSH
RDP / SSH
Privileged Session Management
Adaptive Workflow Control
Adaptive Workflow Control
Included API Cache
(no extra cost)
API for Passwords / Sessions / Onboarding
Local Area Connection
Controlling Application Access
Automatic Login to ESXi example
ESXRDP (4489) RDP (3389)
User selects vSphere application
Session Recording / Logging
Automatic Login to Unix/Linux Applications
Typical Use Cases
Jump host in DMZ
SSH (22) SSH (22)
User selects SSH application and
Session Recording / Logging
Reporting & Analytics
Advanced Threat Analytics
What makes Password Safe different?
Adaptive workflow control to evaluate and intelligently route based on the
who, what, where, and when of the request
Full network scanning capabilities with built-in auto-onboard capabilities
Integrated data warehouse and analytics capability
Smart Rules for building permission sets dynamically according to data
pulled back from scans
Session management / live monitoring at NO ADDITIONAL COST
Clean, uncluttered, and intuitive HTML5 interface for end users
Leader: Forrester PIM Wave, Q3 2016
Top-ranked Current Offering (product) among all 10
BeyondTrust excels with its privileged session
BeyondTrust  provides the machine learning and
predictive behavior analytics capabilities.
Gartner: BeyondTrust is a representative vendor for all
five key PAM solution categories.
OVUM: BeyondTrust  provides an integrated, one-
stop approach to PAM one of only a small band of
PAM providers offering end-to-end coverage.
SC Magazine: Recommended product.
and more from IDC, KuppingerCole, TechNavio, 451Research,
Frost & Sullivan and Forrester
Thank you for attending!