1 สสสสสสสสสส 16-17 สสสสสสสสสสสสสสสสสส สสสส 427-303 Sociological Theories สสสสสสสสสสส 1/2554 สสสสสส สสสสสส สสสสสสสสสสสสสสสส สสสสสสสสสส

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สปัดาหท่ี์ 16-17เอกสารประกอบการสอน วชิา

427-303 Sociological Theoriesภาคเรยีนท่ี 1/2554

เรื่อง แนวคิด พฒันาการของทฤษฎีสงัคมวทิยา

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image of George Ritzer's integrative (micro-macro ) theory of social analysis

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ทฤษฎีสงัคมวทิยาAuguste Comte (1798 - 1857)


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Auguste Comte (1798 - 1857)

French philosopher regarded as the founder of sociology, a term he coined 1830. He sought to establish sociology as an intellectual discipline, using a scientific approach ('positivism') as the basis of a new science of social order and social development.

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Auguste Comte (1798 - 1857)

- In his six volume "Cours de ph ilosophie positive" 1830–42, C

omte argued that human thou ght and social development e

volve through three stages: t he theological, the metaphysi

cal, and the positive or scienti fic. Although he originally sou ght to proclaim society's evol

ution to a new golden age of s cience, industry, and rational

morality, his radical ideas wer e increasingly tempered by th e political and social upheaval s of his time. His influence con

tinued in Europe and the USA until the early 20th century.

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Auguste Comte (1798 - 1857)

Comte, born in Montpellier, w as expelled from the Paris Eco le Polytechnique for leading a

student revolt 1816. In 1818 h e became secretary to the soc

- ialist Saint Simon and was mu ch influenced by him. He bega

n lecturing on the 'Positive Ph ilosophy' 1826, but almost im

mediatelysuccumbedtoa nervous di sorder andonce triedtocommi t sui ci de i nthe ri ver Se ine.Onhi s recovery he resumedhi s l ecturesandmathemati cal teachi ng.

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Sociological Research Online: focusing on theoretical, empirical and methodological discussions which engage with current political, cultural and intellectual topics and debates.

Email: [email protected]

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Phenomenology and Sociology

Phenomenology is a 20th century philosophical way of thinking about the nature of reality which has influenced Sociology . The German Philosopher Ed

mund Husserl is closely linked with phenomenology.Phenomenology argues that the only 'PHENOMENA' that we can be sure of is that we are 'conscious' thinking beings .Therefore we should study any phenomena around us in terms of the way we conscoiusly experience them .This examination should be free of preconceptions and causal ideas.

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These ideas influenced sociologists such as Alfred Schutz (1899-1959) who thought that Sociology should look at the way individual 'construct' the social world. He tried to combine the work of Weber with that of Husserl in his book "The Phenomenology of the Social World" (1932).


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Erving GoffmanSymbolic Interactionist

Brief Biography- 192288, American sociologist; b. Ma


of behavi or i n 1The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (

959). H HHHH HHHHH H HHH HHHHH( 1 9 6 1 ),

HHHHHH HHHHHHH amongi nmat es of a ment al asyl um, l ed t o hi s st u

dy of other institutions. He taught at the universiti


The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life

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Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense

Common Sense• The definition of common sense is:

– 1: the unreflective opinions of ordinary men 2: sound and prudent but often unsophisticated judgement (Mish 1991:266)

• Common sense is a valuable tool for our everyday lives -- we would not want to totally demean its value

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Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense

Scientific Inquiry• The definition for scientific inquiry is:

– A deliberate, focused, systematic, and logical means of explaining an observable event in one’s world (Bolender 1993:11)

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Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense

– The scientific method provides a more thorough, thoughtful explanation of events than most common sense answers could give. The scientific method may conclude that it has not found a good answer to the purpose of the event, however that is generally still a more thorough answer than most common sense answers provide (Bolender 1993:11-12).

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Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense

Most people are constantly in the process of making informal observations about their world. Attempts are made to describe, explain, predict, and control daily events (Bunker, Pearlson, and Schulz 1975).

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Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense

Perception Screening Devices• Common Sense

– The layperson uses common sense to deal with everyday observations (Selltiz, Wrightsman, and Cook 1976). Laypeople use subjective ideas (opinions) to determine if an observation is reliable (Bunker, Pearlson, and Schulz 1975).

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Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense

• Scientific Inquiry– Evidence (objective facts) is used in scientific

inquiry to indicate if an idea is supportable (Bunker, Pearlson, and Schulz 1975).

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Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense

Real World Examples• Freshman Seminar (Bolender

1994)• Reducing Crime in Major Cities

(Moffit 1996)

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Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense

The sociologist as a The sociologist as a destroyer of myths.destroyer of myths.

Norbert Elias ([1970] 1978:50)

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Scientific Inquiry versus Common Sense

Scientific inquiry--Scientific inquiry--How will this help me in How will this help me in

real life?real life?

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Theory and ParadigmParadigm

• The definition of a paradigm is:– Paradigms. . . are taken-for-granted ideas and

assumptions not debated by members of a scientific discipline (Denisoff, Callahan, and Levine 1974).

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Theory and ParadigmWhen paradigms change, the world When paradigms change, the world

itself changes with them. Led by a itself changes with them. Led by a new paradigm, scientists adapt new paradigm, scientists adapt

new instruments and look in new new instruments and look in new places.places.

Thomas Samuel Kuhn (1970:110?)

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Theory and ParadigmDoes one’s paradigm make any Does one’s paradigm make any

difference in the real world? difference in the real world? You bet it doesYou bet it does!!

“Why Doctors Are Not Curing Ulcers”

Brian O’Reilly (1997:100-112)

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Theory and ParadigmAssumption

• The definition of assumption is:– . . . a preconception or “given.” . . . it refers to

something that is taken for granted (Perdue 1986:5-6).

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Theory and Paradigm• For example: Plato’s Six Basic Assumptions of

Society (he was a sociologist before the discipline officially existed)

– Man is an organism.– Organisms tend toward survival.– Man survives in groups.– Man is a social animal.– Man lives in an ordered society.– The order of society is knowable.

(Rose 1967 and Carroll 1972 in Denisoff, Callahan, and Levine 1974:4-5)

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Theory and ParadigmTheory

• A definition of theory is:– . . . A theory is a logical deductive-inductive

system of concepts, definitions, and propositions which states a relationship between two or more selected aspects of phenomena and from which testable hypotheses can be derived (Ward 1974:39).

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Theory and Paradigm• Theories in sociology are intended to be

descriptive, explanatory, and predictive of phenomena of interest to the discipline and to its individual practitioners (Ward 1974:39).

– A theory is a set of concepts plus the interrelationships that are assumed to exist among those concepts. A theory also includes consequences that we assume logically to follow from the relationships proposed in the theory. These consequences are called hypotheses (Selltiz, Wrightsman, and Cook 1976).

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Theory and ParadigmProposition

• A definition of proposition:– . . . are “statements about the nature of reality” which

describe connections between phenomena or events. “Man is an organism and must eat to survive” is a propositional statement which can easily be put to the test. At a higher level sociologists may say, “Changes in the economic structure will result in changes in the nonmaterial aspects of society.” This statement can also be put to the test (Phillips 1971:52 in Denisoff, Callahan, and Levine 1974:23).

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Theory and ParadigmConcept

• Theories also contain concepts, which are created by giving names to events, phenomena, and processes. Concepts are merely the symbols scientists use as a form of shorthand (Denisoff, Callahan, and Levine 1974:23).

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Theory and Paradigm– “Each concept communicates to the specialist

a vast amount of experience, abstracted and clarified for those who understand the term (Goode and Hatt 1952:44 in Denisoff, Callahan, and Levine 1974:23).

• Example: Status is a concept which refers to an individual’s location in society-high, low, or middle range (Denisoff, Callahan, and Levine 1974:23).

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Theory and ParadigmDefinition

Nominal Definition– Is a substitute for some concrete object

• Sports car

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Theory and Paradigm• Real Definition

– Is anchored in concrete or observable phenomena and has empirical or testable implications

• The President of the United States

(Bierstedt in Denisoff, Callahan, andLevine 1974:23-24)

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Theory and Paradigm• Operational Definition

– Measurement theory concerns the linkage between concepts and indicators in a study. Operational definitions are always based on measurement theories that assign empirical meaning to concepts. . . The operational definition stipulates which specific indicators (or observations) are to be assigned which specific meanings (Selltiz, Wrightsman, and Cook 1976:40).

• Example: IQ is an operational definition of intelligence

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Theory and ParadigmHypothesis

• The definition of hypothesis is:– is a statement outlining the relationship

between two or more factors of events, such as X causes Y. A hypothesis is reasoned or deducted from a theory and seeks to make a general statement specific (Denisoff, Callahan, and Levine 1974: 24).

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Theory and ParadigmEmile Durkheim’s Study of Suicide

• Theory: Society is a closed system with each member interrelated to all the other members within the society. There is a phenomenon of social integration.

• Proposition: Society is an organism with interrelated parts, therefore, the stronger the social cohesion, the stronger the society.

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Theory and Paradigm• Concepts:

– Social cohesion– Solidarity

• Operational Definition: Suicide is an objective measurement of social cohesion

• Hypothesis: The annual suicide rate for Catholics will be lower than Protestants– The hypothesis is a deduction of the theory

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Theory and ParadigmLogic

• Deductive reasoning– Use of logic and authority

• Inductive reasoning– Use of empirical observation

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Theory and ParadigmDeductive Reasoning

From the General

To the Particular

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Theory and ParadigmInductive Reasoning

To the General

From the Particular

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Theory and ParadigmCommon Sense versus Scientific Common Sense versus Scientific

InquiryInquiry 500 plus years ago--Why 500 plus years ago--Why did the uneducated man did the uneducated man

think the earth was flat (or think the earth was flat (or hump-back)?hump-back)?

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Theory and Paradigm

What impact did this What impact did this “paradigm” have on “paradigm” have on


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ICA: Theory and Paradigm Worksheet

• Go to page 7 of the worksheet• The theme: The earth is flat (or hump-

back)• Make an attempt to complete each

component as if you accepted this paradigm

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ICA: Theory and Paradigm Worksheet

• Go to page 8 of the worksheet• Paradigm

– The earth is flat (or at least hump-back).• Assumptions

– The world ends at the “four corners” of the earth.

– The “known” surface land mass has been explored.

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ICA: Theory and Paradigm Worksheet

– The edges of all the “known” surface land mass is bordered by water.

• Theories– The is flat (or at least hump-back).– The earth has “edges.”

• Propositions– Man cannot travel beyond the edge of the

earth without falling off.

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ICA: Theory and Paradigm Worksheet

– All of the surface land mass has been explored or at least mapped.

• Concepts– Four corners of the earth– Edge of the world

• Definitions– Real Definition

• Boundaries of the earth

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ICA: Theory and Paradigm Worksheet

– Operational definition• The earth has only X number of nautical miles

between the western coast of Europe and the western boundary of the earth.

• Hypothesis– If a ship sails indefinitely in one direction

(west, east, south, or north), it will fall off the edge of the earth.

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Theory and ParadigmThe development of sociological theories has

been slow. Attempting to develop scientific theories about society is very complex. The

variables are endless.Does that make it any less of a worthy goal?Does that make it any less of a worthy goal?The answer is no. It just makes the task that

much more challenging.

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Theory and ParadigmReview

Paradigms Comparison Tableand

Paradigm and Assumption Document