- 1.The pulpit by Nicola Pisano (created in 1260) is a major work of medieval sculptural art. Unlike the traditional Tuscan pulpits, this pulpit does not lean against the church wall, but is standing unsupported in open space. Thus the pulpit itself can be seen as a sculpture whose ornaments can be viewed from all sides. The form was hexagonal, with panels in high relief consisting of scenes from the life of Jesus. The pulpit is supported by elaborate columns, three of which rest on carved lions. The shape of the pulpit and the use of antique prototypes are thought to derive from an early training in S Italy. Imbued with the classic spirit, Nicola concentrated on the human figure, creating a style of monumental dignity Pisa Pulpit 1260 Marble, height: 465 cm Baptistry, Pisa
2. Nicola Pisano. Nativity,detail of Baptistery Pulpit panel:Annunciation, Nativity and Annunciation to Shepherds1259-60Italian GothicThis is a relief carving. The relief varies greatly in the height and or depth of each of the figures and objects. In general the composition is fairly symmetrical yet it is very crowded and almost seems disorganized. Most of the figures are placed in the foreground of the picture plane and the space created is not very illusionistic. Space is created by placing the figures in the foreground lower in the picture planeThe rendering of each of the figures is fairly naturalistic and the clothing, drapery and poses are somewhat reminiscent of carvings such as the this one from the Parthenon's pediment. Several of the figures, such as the main one which depicts Mary and the child (Jesus) are repeated because several scenes are simultaneously being represented. This kind ofcontinuous narrativeis common in Byzantine, Romanesque, Gothic and Renaissance art. The realism of her pose and drapery demonstrate the beginnings of the heightened realism that occurs during this period. These classical references refer to the new ideas concerning a more humanistic approach towards interpreting scripture. The naturalism relates more towards the viewer than ever before and it is possible to imagine the scene as something real. 3. 4. Many paintings like this have a rather Byzantine flavor or style to how they are painted. This formulaic attempts to emulate Greek icons is what Vasari (an art hsitorian from the late 16th C) called themaniera grecain Italy.This altarpiece is painted in tempera on wood. At five feet, the representation of St. Francis is depicted as nearly life-size. Art of the Byzantine period largely influenced Italian Gothic art. There is no depth to St. Francis.. His feet are not standing on the ground but seem to be floating just above it. Iconography:St. Francis is situated in the center of the painting - a position usually reserved for Christ or the Virgin Mary. The identification with Christ is further enhanced with the clearly displayed stigmata on his raised blessing hand. The three knots on his rope belt represent chastity, poverty and obedience. He is flanked on either side by angels and is surrounded by boxes containing major events in his life.This altarpiece was completed in 1235, less than ten years after Francis canonization. St. Francis taught that studying nature was a way to understand God and religious ideas should be discovered through human experience of the world. These observations were partially responsible for the reflection on nature rather than most art of its time and were a prototype for new works. This led to new observations of nature in art and the beginnings of scientific study.Bonaventura Berlinghieri, panel from theSaint Francis Altarpiece , San Francesco, Pescia, Italy, tempera on wood, 5 x 3 6 5. Gothic and Late Gothic Paintings The transition from the Byzantine or "Greek Manner" to the Late Gothic and Renaissance Styles.The overall composition of this work is symmetrical. The largest figures of Mary and Jesus are at the center of the composition and they are flanked by two rows of angels and Saints overlapped as if they are standing on bleachers. In order to create space, Duccio uses the same convention of vertical perspective we saw in Pisano's pulpit. The figures that are highest up in the picture plane are furthest back.This painting was rendered with tempera paint and gold leaf. Tempera is a medium which is made from egg (sometimes just the yolk sometimes the whites) glue and ground up minerals that serve as pigment or colorant. The egg actually glues or binds the pigments to the surface. The paint is applied in small distinct brush strokes that show the brushwork when looked at closely. The background is gold leaf on a wooden panel that has been painted with a a combination of glue and marble dust or chalk referred to as gesso. The gold leaf is then incised and punctured with designs (Stokstad calls thispunchwork .) Gold leaf has also been added to the drapery as a means to highlight the folds.Again the rendering of the face and hands was an attempt by the sculptor to represent convincing human forms however, the faces show no real expression and the bodies are completely covered with an almost Byzantine style of drapery that almost completely conceals both figures' bodies. The child Jesus is not rendered as a child buy rather a stiff looking miniature adult. The poses of both figures are stiff and fairly wooden but in the case of Mary, this is appropriate if you look at her role in terms of the work's iconography 6. This painting was rendered with tempera paint and gold leaf. Tempera is a medium which is made from egg (sometimes just the yolk sometimes the whites) glue and ground up minerals that serve as pigment or colorant. The egg actually glues or binds the pigments to the surface. The paint is applied in small distinct brush strokes that show the brushwork when looked at closely. The background is gold leaf on a wooden panel that has been painted with a a combination of glue and marble dust or chalk referred to as gesso. Gold leaf has also been added to the drapery as a means to highlight the folds.Again the rendering of the face and hands was an attempt by the sculptor to represent convincing human forms however, the faces show no real expression and the bodies are completely covered with an almost Byzantine style of drapery that almost completely conceals both figures' bodies. The child Jesus is not rendered as a child buy rather a stiff looking miniature adult. The poses of both figures are stiff and fairly wooden . Color and the gold leaf used also serve as iconographic reminders of Mary and Jesus' status. Gold leaf and red and blue pigments were made from precious stones and materials and are symbols of there status 7. http://www.abcgallery.com/D/duccio/maesta.html In 1308 the city of Siena commissioned Duccio to produce a panel for the cathedrals high altar. The work now is world-known under the name of The Maest. On June 9, 1311 the completed painting was brought into the cathedral. The huge altarpiece originally must have been over 5 meters (about 16.5 feet) high and 5 meters (about 16.5 feet) long. It was painted on both sides. The whole panel remained on the cathedrals high altar until 1506, and was then displayed on a different altar. Finally, in 1711 the decision was made to dismantle the altarpiece in order to distribute them between the two altars. This dismantling, of which there is a documentary record, is the reason for the works present fragmentary state. At first the whole frame, the predellas and the crowning sections were removed. Then the panel was sawn into seven parts. The two predellas were each painted on a horizontally laid piece of wood, and could therefore be taken apart easily. The main panel, however, posed a problem. On the front, it consists of eleven boards arranged vertically, to which five boards, laid horizontally, were nailed from the back. The wood, which had been glued and nailed together, was very difficult to saw in two, and in the process the picture-surface was severely damaged especially the Madonnas face and garment. We owe the panels present state of presentation to successful restoration in 1956.Sacra conversazione , a formal grouping, usually painted but sometimes in sculpture (e.g. by Donatello), of the Virgin and Child surrounded by saints. 8. 9. 10. Cimabue. Madonna and Child Enthroned with Eight Angels and Four Prophets (Maest).1280. Tempera on panel. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy.The picture originally stood on the high altar of Santa Trinit church in Florence. The iconography is frequent in medieval painting and represents the Madonna enthroned with Child and angels, a pattern commonly said Maest as shows the Virgin as Queen of Paradise. In the lower part are four biblical figures, symbolizing foundations of Christ's kingdom: the prophets Jeremiah and Isaiah under lateral arches, Abraham and King David under the chair of the throne.This Madonna, still shows the influence of the Byzantine tradition. There is, however, an unprecedented tension in the profiles and in the attempt to create spatial depth, which is rendered by superimposing the figures and in the concave structure at the base of the throne behind the figures of the prophets. The architectural structure of the throne becomes a sort of robust spatial scheme which creates a three-dimensional effect, while the edges of the painting seem to compress and hold in the bodies.Cimabue may have been the teacher of Giotto.
11. Cimabue Giotto 12. The Father of Western painting
13. Giotto'sArena Chapel1305-1306 also called Scrovegni Chapel (consecrated March 25, 1305), small chapel built in the first years of the 14th century in Padua, Italy, by Enrico Scrovegni and containing frescoes by the Florentine painter Giotto. A "Last Judgment" covers the entire