Environmental Science Merit Badge - requirement 1, 2, 3a and 3b

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Text of Environmental Science Merit Badge - requirement 1, 2, 3a and 3b

  • 1. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE MERIT BADGE

2. Make a timeline of the history of environmental science in America: Environmental Science Merit Badge 1. TIMELINE 3. BEFORE EUROPEAN SETTLERS ARRIVED IN NORTH AMERICA, AMERICAN INDIANS USED FORESTS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES FOR CENTURIES. AT TIMES, TRIBES OVERUSED CERTAIN FORESTED AREAS. IF A FOREST BECAME OVERUSED OR TOO HEAVILY DAMAGED TO SUPPORT A TRIBE, THE GROUP WOULD MOVE ON AND THE FOREST, LEFT ALONE , WOULD RECOVER. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE AS MORE SETTLERS ARRIVED IN NORTH AMERICA, THEIR NEED FOR NATURAL RESOURCES GREW. WHEN THEY RAN OUT OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN A SETTLED AREA, PEOPLE MOVED WESTWARD AND BEGAN THE CYCLE AGAIN. SETTLERS BELIEVED THEY COULD ALWAYS MOVE FARTHER WEST TO FIND MORE SPACE AND MORE RESOURCES. 4. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 1626 Plymouth Colony passed a law to control the cutting and sale of timber. 1639 Newport Rhode Island Restricted deer hunting to six months of the year. 1681 William Penn decreed that one acre must be left forested for every five acres of forest that were cleared. 5. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: ENVIRONMENTAL TIMELINE 6. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 7. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 8. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 9. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 10. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 11. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 12. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 13. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE DDT was a pesticide used on crops to kill mosquitoes. At the time people where afraid of getting malaria from mosquitoes. People thought DDT did not hurt any animals because it did not effect humans, but they were wrong. 14. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 15. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 16. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 17. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 18. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 19. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 20. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 21. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 22. Environmental Science Merit Badge REQUIREMENT 1: TIMELINE 23. 1910 The Boy Scouts of America was incorporated 1914 First tree-planting project was held in New York Planted 12,000 Boy Scout war gardens 1938 Philturn Rocky Mountain Scout Camp established 35,857 acres of land near Cimarron, New Mexico (conservation) 1940-1949 Philmont Scout Ranch established Additional gift from Waite Phillips, 1941 Contiguous to former Philturn Rocky Mountain Scout Camp Total combined acreage: 127,000 Councils and campsites by 1949 543 councils 831 campsites 288,545 acres 1970-1979 Scouting Keep America Beautiful Day June 5, 1971 Scouts collected more than a million tons of litter 1980-1989 First Scouting for Food National Good Turn, 1988 More than 60 million food items were collected 2000-2009 ArrowCorps5, 2008 In cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service 3,600 Scouts and adult volunteers participated $5.6 million worth of improvements made to national parks The Summit Bechtel Family National Scout Reserve, 2009 Present Day Thousands of Eagle Scout projects, service days, etc Environmental Science Merit Badge BSA CONTRIBUTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 24. Outdoor Code As an American, I will do my best to - Be clean in my outdoor manners. Be careful with fire. Be considerate in the outdoors. Be conservation minded. Environmental Science Merit Badge BSA CONTRIBUTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 25. The Principles of Leave No Trace 1. Plan Ahead and Prepare 2. Travel and Camp on Durable Surfaces 3. Dispose of Waste Properly (Pack It In, Pack It Out) 4. Leave What You Find 5. Minimize Campfire Impacts 6. Respect wildlife 7. Be considerate of other visitors Environmental Science Merit Badge BSA CONTRIBUTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 26. Nature study is the key activity in Scouting. The aim in Nature study is to develop a realization of God the Creator, and to infuse a sense of the beauty of Nature." Environmental Science Merit Badge BSA CONTRIBUTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 27. Met Lord Baden-Powell in 1906 and shared ideas LBP read Setons book The Birch Bark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians Early fascination with wolves. Hunted Lobo in New Mexico Co-founded BSA through merger of YMCA, Sons of Daniel Boone, and Woodcraft Indians in 1910 Setons work is in large part responsible for the American Indian influences in the BSA One of Americas earliest and most influential conservationists Environmental Science Merit Badge BSA CONTRIBUTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 28. Define the following terms in your workbook: Environmental Science Merit Badge 2. DEFINE TERMS 29. Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere Symbiosis Niche Habitat Conservation Threatened species Endangered species Extinction Pollution prevention Brownfield Ozone Watershed Airshed Nonpoint source Hybrid vehicle Fuel cell Environmental Science Merit Badge ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE TERMS 30. Population -a group of the same organism in an area. Community -many populations living and interacting together. Ecosystem -the interaction between all living and non-living things in an area. Environmental Science Merit Badge ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE TERMS 31. Our living world where all trees, bugs, and animals live. The biosphere extends to any place that life (of any kind) can exist on Earth. Environmental Science Merit Badge 2. BIOSPHERE 32. A close and often long- term interaction between two or more different biological species. Environmental Science Merit Badge 2. SYMBIOSIS 33. The way of life and the particular area within a habitat occupied by an organism. Environmental Science Merit Badge 2. NICHE 34. A place where plants and animals naturally live. It provides what the animals and plants need to survive like food, water and shelter. Environmental Science Merit Badge 2. HABITAT 35. Practices that protect animals, plants and the environment. Environmental Science Merit Badge 2. CONSERVATION 36. Any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future. THREATENED SPECIES 37. An animal or plant species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion Of its range. ENDANGERED SPECIES 38. The end of an organism or species. Environmental Science Merit Badge 2. EXTINCTION 39. Activities that reduce the amount of pollution generated by a process, whether it is consumer consumption, driving, or industrial production Environmental Science Merit Badge 2. POLLUTION PREVENTION 40. Brownfield sites are abandoned or underused industrial and commercial facilities available for re-use. Environmental Science Merit Badge 2. BROWNFIELD 41. Atmospheric Ozone is produced when ultraviolet radiation interacts in the stratosphere. Ozone in the atmosphere is naturally produced and destroyed at a constant rate. Ozone protects the earth from harmful UV radiation which damages skin, eyes, and the immune system of life forms. Ozone makes life on earth possible. Ground-level Ozone is a major pollutant and green house gas. Environmental Science Merit Badge 2. OZONE 42. A watershed is the area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off of it goes into the same place. Environmental Science Merit Badge 2. WATERSHED 43. An airshed can be compared to a watershed. an airshed is a geographic area where air pollutants from sources "upstream" or within the area flow and are present in the air. Environmental Science Merit Badge 2. AIRSHED 44. Nonpoint source (NPS) a source of pollution, discharged over a wide land area, not from one specific location such as a pipe discharge. Example: rainwater runoff Environmental Science Merit Badge 2. NONPOINT SOURCE 45. A vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle. Environmental Science Merit Badge 2. HYBRID VEHICLE 46. A device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Environmental Science Merit Badge 2. FUEL CELL 47. Describe An Ecosystem in your workbook 3. A. ECOLOGY 48. Environmental Science Merit Badge 3. A. ECOLOGY (3) DISCUSS WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM, TELL HOW IT IS MAINTAINED IN NATURE AND HOW IT SURVIVES. 49. An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment. Environmental Science Merit Badge 3. A. ECOLOGY (3) DISCUSS WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM, TELL HOW IT IS MAINTAINED IN NATURE AND HOW IT SURVIVES. 50. Acidity is a property measured on a scale called the pH scale with a range of 0 to 14. Pure water has a pH of 7. Rain is naturally slightly acidic, with a pH of about 5.6, this is because carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reacts with water vapor to become carbonic acid. Environmental Science Merit Badge 3. B. AIR POLLUTION (3) EXPLAIN WHAT IS ACID RAIN. 51. Sul f ur di oxi de and ni t r ogen oxi des ar e t he pr i mar y causes of aci d r ai n. When vehi cl es and power pl ant s t hat bur n f ossi l f uel s emi t sul f ur di oxi de and ni t r ogen oxi des i nt o t he ai r , t hese gases i nt er act wi t h wat er vapor t o f or msul f ur i c and ni t r i c aci ds. These acids then mix with rain and fall to Earths Environmental Science Merit Badge 3. B. AIR POLLUTION (3) EXPLAIN WHAT IS ACID RAIN. Acid rain can deplete the soil of the nutrients that plants need to grow.