Class 5 adult development theories___longer_version

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  • 1. Adult DevelopmentAdult Development TheoriesTheories Class 3Class 3 ADLT 601 The Adult LearnerADLT 601 The Adult Learner Spring 2006Spring 2006
  • 2. Personal Development TheoristsPersonal Development Theorists Age / StageAge / Stage Development proceeds according to a series of stagesDevelopment proceeds according to a series of stages adults pass through as they ageadults pass through as they age Life EventsLife Events Development coincides with major life events such asDevelopment coincides with major life events such as marriage, death of spouse, etcmarriage, death of spouse, etc TransitionsTransitions Development marked by periods of transition from oneDevelopment marked by periods of transition from one stage to anotherstage to another
  • 3. Age Stage TheoristsAge Stage Theorists Levinson (1978, 1996)Levinson (1978, 1996) Gilligan (1986)Gilligan (1986) Havighurst (1981)Havighurst (1981) Maslow (1968)Maslow (1968) Gould (1978)Gould (1978) Erikson (1959)Erikson (1959)
  • 4. Daniel LevinsonDaniel Levinson Life cycle composed of 4 developmental periodsLife cycle composed of 4 developmental periods Childhood Adolescence (birth age 20)Childhood Adolescence (birth age 20) Early Adulthood (ages 17-45)Early Adulthood (ages 17-45) Middle Adulthood (ages 40 65)Middle Adulthood (ages 40 65) Late Adulthood (ages 60 onward)Late Adulthood (ages 60 onward) Each transition takes 3-6 years to completeEach transition takes 3-6 years to complete Concept of individuation changing relationshipConcept of individuation changing relationship between self and the worldbetween self and the world
  • 5. Carol GilliganCarol Gilligan Feminist perspective on age-stage theoriesFeminist perspective on age-stage theories Highly critical of Levinsons concept of theHighly critical of Levinsons concept of the dreamdream Male identity build upon contrast andMale identity build upon contrast and separateness to primary care-giverseparateness to primary care-giver Female identity based on perceptions ofFemale identity based on perceptions of sameness and attachment to primary caregiversameness and attachment to primary caregiver
  • 6. Gilligan, contGilligan, cont Womens moral judgment proceeds throughWomens moral judgment proceeds through three levelsthree levels Focus on self (Level 1)Focus on self (Level 1) Caring for others equated with good (Level 2)Caring for others equated with good (Level 2) Caring for others and responsibility forCaring for others and responsibility for individual needs (Level 3)individual needs (Level 3) Two transitionsTwo transitions Movement from selfishness to responsibilityMovement from selfishness to responsibility Movement from goodness to truthMovement from goodness to truth
  • 7. HavighurstHavighurst ickering and Havighurstickering and Havighurst Concept of the teachable moment whenConcept of the teachable moment when the learning opportunity coincides withthe learning opportunity coincides with the life task at handthe life task at hand Identified developmental tasks specific toIdentified developmental tasks specific to white, middle-class North Americanswhite, middle-class North Americans
  • 8. Abraham MaslowAbraham Maslow Development as reaching self-actualizationDevelopment as reaching self-actualization Accepting of themselves and othersAccepting of themselves and others Problem-centered not self-centeredProblem-centered not self-centered Have spontaneityHave spontaneity Have had mystical or spiritual experiencesHave had mystical or spiritual experiences Resist conformity to cultureResist conformity to culture Need for privacyNeed for privacy Deep relationships with a few special othersDeep relationships with a few special others Have creativityHave creativity
  • 9. Roger GouldRoger Gould Development is a process of confrontingDevelopment is a process of confronting layer upon layer of childhood painlayer upon layer of childhood pain Development involves separation fromDevelopment involves separation from childhood assumptionschildhood assumptions
  • 10. Erik EriksonErik Erikson Development occurs as demands ofDevelopment occurs as demands of society provoke struggle or crisis withinsociety provoke struggle or crisis within the personthe person Eight psycho-social stages: five inEight psycho-social stages: five in childhood based on Freudian conceptschildhood based on Freudian concepts Adult stagesAdult stages IntimacyIntimacy GenerativityGenerativity IntegrityIntegrity
  • 11. Life Events TheoristsLife Events Theorists Neugarten (1976)Neugarten (1976) Baltes et al. (1980)Baltes et al. (1980) Riegel (1976)Riegel (1976) Merriam and Clark (1991)Merriam and Clark (1991)
  • 12. NeugartenNeugarten Adult development defined by time factorsAdult development defined by time factors Social timeSocial time Development situations are not experiencedDevelopment situations are not experienced as crises ifas crises if they occur on time as socially appropriatethey occur on time as socially appropriate Crises come from off time life events when experienceCrises come from off time life events when experience differs from expectationsdiffers from expectations Historical time creates age appropriate normsHistorical time creates age appropriate norms Chronological age increases ability to interpretChronological age increases ability to interpret experience in more refined waysexperience in more refined ways
  • 13. Baltes et al.Baltes et al. Normative age-graded developmental influencesNormative age-graded developmental influences Physical maturity, commencement of education, death ofPhysical maturity, commencement of education, death of parentsparents Normative, historically-determined eventsNormative, historically-determined events Economic depressions, wars, etcEconomic depressions, wars, etc Non-normative influences of great impactNon-normative influences of great impact Experiences unique to the individual such as contractingExperiences unique to the individual such as contracting rare disease, winning the lottery, etcrare disease, winning the lottery, etc
  • 14. RiegelRiegel Individual is a changing person in a changing worldIndividual is a changing person in a changing world Human development moves along 4 dimensionsHuman development moves along 4 dimensions Inner-biological (maturation, health)Inner-biological (maturation, health) Individual-psychological (self-concept, self-esteem)Individual-psychological (self-concept, self-esteem) Cultural-social (rules, regulations, social rituals)Cultural-social (rules, regulations, social rituals) Outer physical (natural world events)Outer physical (natural world events) When any 2 dimensions are in conflict,When any 2 dimensions are in conflict, developmental change may occurdevelopmental change may occur
  • 15. Merriam and ClarkMerriam and Clark LoveLove andand WorkWork are the two goals ofare the two goals of successful adult developmentsuccessful adult development Found 3 patterns unrelated to age or genderFound 3 patterns unrelated to age or gender Divergent (when one is good, other is low)Divergent (when one is good, other is low) Steady/Fluctuating (one steady, other fluctuates)Steady/Fluctuating (one steady, other fluctuates) Parallel (Love and work happiness coincide)Parallel (Love and work happiness coincide)
  • 16. Transitions TheoristsTransitions Theorists Bridges (1980)Bridges (1980) Sugarman (1986)Sugarman (1986)
  • 17. William BridgesWilliam Bridges Life marked by a series of transitionsLife marked by a series of transitions Each individual has a characteristic way ofEach individual has a characteristic way of dealing with transitions which will bedealing with transitions which will be repeated throughout liferepeated throughout life Three recurring eventsThree recurring events Endings firstEndings first Neutral zoneNeutral zone New beginningNew beginning
  • 18. SugarmanSugarman Change experience follows a characteristic patternChange experience follows a characteristic pattern Immobilization sense of being overwhelmedImmobilization sense of being overwhelmed Reaction sharp mood swings from elation to despairReaction sharp mood swings from elation to despair Denial - minimizing the impactDenial - minimizing the impact Letting go of the pastLetting go of the past Testing exploring new optionsTesting exploring new options Searching for meaning a cons