Evolution And The Fossil Record

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  • John Pojeta, Jr. Dale A. Springer American Geological Institute The Paleontological Society
  • About the Authors John Pojeta, Jr. has been an active paleontologist Dale A. Springer is a since 1957. He is a Scientist Emeritus with the U.S. paleontologist and Professor Geological Survey (USGS) and Research Associate of Geosciences at Bloomsburg with the Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian University in Bloomsburg,PA. She Institution. He earned his B.S. degree at Capital earned her B.A. degree at Lafayette Trilobite University, Bexley, OH, majoring in biology and College, Easton, PA, her M.S. degree (Ordovician) chemistry and earned his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees at the University of Rochester, NY, and from the University of Cincinnati, majoring in geol- her Ph.D. at Virginia Polytechnic Institute ogy and paleontology. In 1963, he joined the USGS, and State University, Blacksburg. She was a visit- Branch of Paleontology and Stratigraphy, where he ing faculty member at Amherst and Smith Colleges spent his career. His research has centered on early before joining the Bloomsburg faculty in 1985. Paleozoic mollusks, and has taken him to many Her major research interest lies in understanding the American states, Antarctica, Australia, Canada, factors controlling temporal and spatial changes in China, Czech Republic, Senegal, Sweden, United fossil and modern marine invertebrate communities. Kingdom, and elsewhere. He has been Secretary and Dr. Springer has a long standing interest in geo- President of The Paleontological Society; President science education. She has served as Chairperson of of the Paleontological Research Institution; Chief, the Paleontological Societys Education Committee, Branch of Paleontology and Stratigraphy, USGS; as well as on several committees of the American and a member of the National Academy of Sciences Geological Institute. Committee on Paleontological Collecting. Credits Front cover Adapted from Fossils Through Time, a Pages 10-11 Sharks tooth, Fossil seed fern, Petrified U.S. Geological Survey poster and photographic col- wood (G. James) lage of life on Earth over the past 600 million years. Pages 12-13 Hubble image, Earthrise over moon Inside Cover and title page Ammonite fossil (G. James), (NASA), Trilobite (J. Pojeta, photo: G. James) Modern coral reef (J. Pojeta, Jr.), Ferns (Adobe) Pages 14-15 Ammonite (G. James), Block diagram Page ii-iii Trilobite (M.L. Pojeta, photo: G. James), (Springer/De Atley), Stratigraphic ranges table Fossils (J. Pojeta, Jr.) (modified from Edwards and Pojeta, 1994) Page iv-v Ammonite, fossil fern (G. James) Pages 16-17 Half-life diagram (modified from Bushee and others, 2000), Ordovician limestone and shale Page vi Geologic Time Scale (De Atley), Adapted (J. Pojeta) from various sources Page 19 Forelimb comparison (modified from Daeschler Page 1 Ammonite (G. James) and Shubin, 1998) Pages 2-3 Chesapecten fossils (adapted From Ward Pages 20-21 Comparison of bird and dinosaur skeletons and Blackwelder, 1975; Bryce Canyon (M. Miller) and limbs (modified from Ostrom, 1975 and 1994; Diagram comparing skulls of reptiles to mammals Pages 4-5 Trilobite, brachiopod (J. Pojeta, photo: (modified from Savage and Long, 1986) G. James), Tyranosaurus rex skull (Smithsonian Institution); Jurassic Dinosaur Footprints (modified Pages 22-23 Reconstruction of the walking whale that from Haubold, 1971), Devonian and Ordovician swims (modified from Thewissen and others, 1996), trilobites (adapted from Moore, 1959) Sequoia National Park, California (Digital Vision) Pages 6-7 Charles Darwin (1875 portrait), Silurian and Pages 24-25 Brachiopod (G. James), Design: De Atley Design Devonian fishes (modified from Fenton and Fenton, Dragonfly and Amphibian Fossils Printing: CLB Printing 1958), Eocene fish fossil (G. James), Jurassic/ (Hemera) Cretaceous fishes (modified from Romer, 1966) Copyright 2001 Page 26 Nautilus (G. James) All rights reserved. Pages 8-9 Early Jurassic mammal skeleton (modified American Geological Institute from Jenkins and Parrington,1976), Diversification Back Cover Grand Canyon, Arizona Alexandria, Virginia diagram (modified from Novacek, 1994) (Digital Vision) www.agiweb.org ii E V O L U T I O N A N D T H E F O S S I L R E C O R D ISBN 0-922152-57-8
  • Acknowledgments Many persons have helped us as we assembled this report. We gratefully recognize artist Julie De Atley for the graphic design and illustration, photographer George James, Robert E. Weems (who provided the fossil footprints), and Julia A. Jackson, Editor. We also extend our sincerest thanks and appreciation to the following individuals for reviewing the manuscript: David Applegate Patricia H. Kelley Kevin Padian American Geological Institute University of North Carolina, University of California, Berkeley Wilmington Mel M. Belsky Kim L. Pojeta Brooklyn College, CUNY Christopher G. Maples Smithsonian Institution Indiana University, Bloomington David J. Bohaska Linda Pojeta Smithsonian Institution Sara Marcus Northport, New York University of Kansas Alan H. Cheetham Robert W. Purdy Smithsonian Institution James G. Mead Smithsonian Institution Smithsonian Institution Daniel Dreyfus Vicki Quick and her students Smithsonian Institution Marcus E. Milling Marshall, VA American Geological Institute J.T. Dutro, Jr. Bruce N. Runnegar U.S. Geological Survey Don Munich University of California, Los Angeles Charlestown, IN Alan Goldstein Judy Scotchmoor Falls of the Ohio State Park, Charles Naeser University of California, Berkeley Clarksville, IN U.S. Geological Survey Colin D. Sumrall Pat Holroyd Norman D. Newell Cincinnati Museum of Natural University of California, Berkeley American Museum of Natural History History and Science John Keith William A. Oliver, Jr. Frank C. Whitmore, Jr. U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Geological Survey The American Geological Institute and The Paleontologial Society thank the following organizations for supporting the production and distribution of