# Spherical mirror by Kshitiz Rai

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### Text of Spherical mirror by Kshitiz Rai

• 1. Virtual Images Virtual Images are basically images which cannot be visually projected on a screen.If this box gave off light, we could project an image of this box on to a screen provided the screen was on the SAME SIDE as the box. You would not be able to project the image of the vase or your face in a mirror on a screen, therefore it is a virtual image.CONCLUSION: VIRTUAL IMAGES are ALWAYS on the OPPOSITE side of the mirror relative to the object.

2. Real Image Real Images are ones you can project on to a screen. For MIRRORS they always appear on the SAME SIDE of the mirror as the object. The characteristics of the image, however, may be different from object the original object. These characteristics are: image SIZE (reduced, enlarged, same size) POSITION (same side, opposite side) ORIENTATION (right side up, inverted) 3. Spherical Mirrors Concave & ConvexAlso called DIVERGING mirrorAlso called CONVERGING mirror 4. Converging (Concave) Mirror Since the mirror is spherical it technically has a CENTER OF CURVATURE, C. The focal point happens to be HALF this distance.We also draw a line through the center of the mirror and call it the PRINCIPAL AXIS. 5. (a) Rays parallel to the principal axis are reflected and they pass through the principal focusCFP 6. (b) Rays passing through the principal focus (F) will move parallel to the principal axis after reflectionCFP 7. (c) Ray passing through the centre of curvature (C) are reflected back along their own paths because they are normal to the mirror.CFP 8. Now let us draw a ray diagram for an object beyond C I am parallel to the principal axis. Always draw me firstC I am reflected parallel to the principal axisWhat is the nature and position of the image formed? 1) Image is real but inverted. 2) Image is between focus(F) and center of curvature(C).ImageI am the ObjectFP 9. Now let us draw a ray diagram for an object at C I am parallel to the principal axis. Always draw me firstI am the ObjectCFI am the imageWhat is the nature of image formed? 1) The image is real , inverted and of same size. 2) The image is formed at center of curvature.I am reflected parallel to the principal axisP 10. Now the object is between C and F I am parallel to the principal axis.I am the ObjectCFI am the image now.What is the nature of this image? 1) The image is real and magnified . 2) The position of image is beyond center of curvatureI am reflected parallel to the principal axisP 11. Now let us draw a ray diagram for an object at FI am the ObjectCFP 12. Now let us draw a ray diagram for an object between F and P What is the nature of image formed? 1) The image is virtual , erect and magnified. 2) The is formed behind the mirror.I am reflected parallel to the principal axisI am the image. I am the ObjectCFP 13. The Sky Mirror in Monte Carlo 14. USES OF CONCAVE MIRROR Used by females and males in makeup and shaving by them respectively. To provide enlarged and virtual image.Used in cars to provide strong parallel beams of light. 15. CONVEX MIRROR 16. Image by convex mirror when object beyond 2f Parallel rayApparent Convergence of rays(f)Image is: Virtual Erect Reduced Appears behind the mirror2f 17. Image formed by convex mirror when object is at infinity. Virtual focusParallel raysDotted lines Shows the Apparent Ray focus-Reflected raysFocal length = Forms only virtual, erect, reduced images between the virtual focus and the mirror. 18. USES OF CONVEX MIRROR Convex Mirror is used in the given images because:1) It help the driver to see the vehicles behind them. 2) It covers a large area as compared to plane mirror or concave mirror. 3) It creates erect and virtual image always 19. The Mirror EquationIs there any OTHER way to predict image characteristics besides the ray diagram? YES! One way is to use the MIRROR/LENS equation to CALCULATE the position of the image . d0 = distance between pole and image d1= distance between pole and object111fdodi 20. MAGNIFICATION Magnification produced by a spherical mirror gives the relative extent to which the image of an object is magnified with respect to the object size. It is expressed as the ratio of the height of the image(h2) to the height of the object(h1). The magnification is also related to the object distance (u) and image distance(v). M=h2/h1=-v/u 21. THANK YOU By:- Kshitiz Rai 10 A

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