Suryakant nirmalkar

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  • 1.Presented by Suryakant Nirmalkar Branch:- ET&T Roll No:- 3312810042 Water Pollution

2. Importance of water

  • Organisms are composed of much water70%-95%
  • Supportive external environment for aquatic organisms
  • Cellular medium within which biochemical reactions can occur
  • Transport medium for food, oxygen, and other things needed by cells
  • Means of support- Turgid plant cells /Hydrostatic animal support systems

3. Three forms of Water.

  • Solids:When water becomes very cold and freezes it will change from a liquid to a solid.It has a definite form and shape.
  • Liquids: When water takes the shapeof its container it is in a liquid form.
  • Gases:When water is seen in a vapor form and has no definite size or shape it is in a gas form.

4. Distribution of global water 5. The earth's water supply

  • 97.2% of the Earth's water supply is salt water.
  • Only 2.8% is fresh water!

6. World Water Supply 97.200% salt water in the oceans 02.014% ice caps and glaciers 00.600% groundwater 00.009% surface water 00.005% soil moisture 00.001% atmospheric moisture 7. Earth as water planet

  • Earth is often referred to as`the water planet'.
  • Earth is unique amongst planets of our solar system because of its abundant water -in oceans, in the atmosphere, in glaciers and as fresh water on land.
  • Without water, life could not exist.

8. Distribution of water

  • Ocean Water :The vast majority of water on the planet is the salt water in the oceans and seas.
  • Fresh Surface Water :This is the fresh water in rivers, streams, lakes, ponds and similar bodies of water.
  • Groundwater :The majority of the planet's liquid freshwater is stored in underground aquifers. Water that enters an aquifer remains there for an average of 1,400 years!

9. Water : A precious Natural Resource

  • We use water for drinking, irrigation, industrial purposes and energy production.Water use
  • agriculture and energy production - 80%
  • industry and public use - 20%

10. Significance of water

  • Water is an integral part of life on this planet.
  • It is an odorless, tasteless, substance that covers more than three-fourths of the Earth's surface.
  • Most of the water on Earth, 97% to be exact, is salt water found in the oceans.
  • We can not drink salt water or use it for crops because of the salt content.
  • We can remove salt from ocean water, but the process is very expensive.

11. Global hydrologic cycle 12. Human activity disrupts local water cycles

  • Irrigation
  • Clear cutting of forests
  • Watershed disturbance
  • Loss of minerals through runoff
  • Desertification

13. Pollution of water 14. Water Pollution 15. Where do Water pollutants come from?

  • Point Sources A single definable source of the pollution, e.g. a factory, a sewage plant, etc. Point-source pollution is usually monitored and regulated .
  • Non-point sources No one single source, but a wide range of sources, e.g. runoff from urban areas, or farmland. Non-point sources are much more difficult to monitor and control.

16. PollutionofWater

  • 1. Industrial pollution
  • 2. Surface pollution
  • 3. Groundwater contamination
  • 4. Sewage pollution
  • 5.Oil pollution
  • 6.Thermal pollution

17. Sources of Water pollution 18. Water pollutants

  • Industrial Effluents This waste water may contain acids, alkalis, salts, poisons, oils and in some cases harmful bacteria.
  • Mining and Agricultural Wastes Mines, especially gold and coal mines, are responsible for large quantities of acid water.
  • Agricultural pesticides, fertilizers and herbicidesmay wash into rivers and stagnant water bodies.
  • Sewage Disposal and Domestic Wastes Sewage as well as domestic and farm wastes were often allowed to pollute rivers and dams.

19. Non-persistent (degradable )Water pollutants

  • Domesticsewage
  • Fertilizers
  • Someindustrial wastes

20. Non-persistent (degradable) water pollutants

  • These compounds can be broken down by chemical reactions or by natural bacteria into simple, non-polluting substances such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
  • if the pollution load is high, this process can lead to low oxygen levels and eutrophication.
  • This damage is reversible.

21. Persistent Water pollutants

  • some pesticides (e.g., DDT, dieldrin)
  • some leachate components from landfill sites (municipal, industrial)
  • petroleum and petroleum products
  • PCBs, dioxins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
  • radioactive materials such as strontium-90, cesium-137, radium-226, and uranium
  • metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium

22. Persistent Water pollutants

  • This is the most rapidly growing type of pollution
  • This includes substances that degrade very slowly or cannot be broken down at all;
  • Theymay remain in the aquatic environment for years or longer periods of time.
  • The damage they cause is either irreversible or repairable only over decades or centuries

23. Otherw ater quality pollutants

  • warm water from cooling towers (thermal pollution)
  • floating debris
  • garbage
  • foam
  • These physical pollutants interfere mainly with the usability and/or aesthetic appeal of the water. In certain cases, thermal pollution can kill fish.

24. 1 . ClassesofWater pollutants

  • Pathogens Bacteria, Viruses, Protozoa, Parasitic Worms, Colliform Bacteria Used As Indicators Of Water Quality
  • Oxygen Demanding Wastes Organics That Are Decomposed By Bacteria And That Use A Lot Of O2, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Decreases, And BOD Increases
  • Water Soluble Inorganic Chemicals Acids, Salts, Toxic Metal Compounds Like Mercury, And Lead.
  • Inorganic Plant Nutrients Water Soluble Phosphates, Nitrates => Algal Blooms, Decreased Dissolved O2, Increased BOD, Methemoglobinemia (="blue baby syndrome")

25. 2. ClassesofWater pollutants

  • Organic Chemicals Oil, Gas, Plastics, Pesticides, Cleaning Solvents, Detergents, Etc.
  • Sediment & Suspended Mater Insoluble Soil Particulates & Other Solids.Clouds The Water, Decreasing Photosynthesis, Carries Pesticides And Disrupts Aquatic Food Webs.
  • Radioactive Isotopes Are Biologically Amplified To Higher Concentrations In The Food Chain.Ionizing Radiation & Birth Defects, Cancer.
  • Warmed Water From Power Plants, Decreases DO And Increases Susceptibility To Diseases And Parasites And Toxic Wastes.
  • Alien Species Zebra Mussels, Asiatic Catfish, Sea Lamprey, etc.Out compete Native Species And Ultimately Decrease Biodiversity

26. Industrial Water pollution

  • Industries discharge a variety of pollutants in their wastewater including heavy metals , resin pellets, organic toxins, oils, nutrients, and solids.


  • Over 1 billion people lack access to safe water supplies, while 2.6 billion people lack adequate sanitation. This has led to widespread microbial contamination of drinking water.
  • Water-associated infectious diseases claim up to 3.2 million lives each year, approximately 6% of all deaths globally.

Microbialcontamination of water 28. Eutrophication

  • Increases innutrient loading may lead to eutrophication .
  • Organic wastes such assewage impose highoxygen demands on the receiving water leading to oxygen depletion.

29. Drought

  • D roughtcauses more damage and suffering than any other natural disaster.
  • 80 countries experience droughts lasting more than 1 year.
  • Accordingto the UN, almost 500 million people, in 31 countries (~40% of the worlds population) experience chronic water shortages today.

30. Acid rain

  • Acid rain is formed when moisture in the clouds mixes with sulfur or nitrogen in the air.
  • Acid rain includes rain, sleet or snow with a pH level that falls below 5.6 (normal rainwater).
  • The sulfur and nitrogen get into the air by the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and gasoline. The average pH of rainfall is 4.3.

31. Plastic waste in water

  • Each year, plastic waste in water and coastal areas kills up to:
  • 100,000 marine mammals,
  • 1 million sea birds, and
  • countless fish.

32. Water borne diseases

  • Diseases caused by the ingestion of water contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites include:
  • cholera
  • typhoid
  • schistosomiasis
  • dysentery and other diarrheal diseases

33. Disease burden from water pollution

  • Water-associated infectious diseases claim up to 3.2 million lives each year,


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