History of the Cooperative Movement

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History of the Cooperative Movement

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<ul><li>1.History of the Cooperative Movement Prepared by: Jo B. Bitonio Philippines</li></ul><p>2. </p> <ul><li>Robert Owen William King The Rochdale Pioneers Charles Fourier Charles Gide Beatrice Webb Friedrich Raiffeisen </li></ul><p>Key Theorists 3. Robert Owen(17711858) OWEN first cooperative theorist and credited with inspiring the Rochdale Pioneers, who in 1844 began the cooperative movement at Rochdale, Lancashire 4. </p> <ul><li>Owen believed in putting his workers in a good environment with access to education for themselves and their children. These ideas were put into effect successfully in thecotton millsofNew Lanark ,Scotland .</li></ul><p>Robert Owen(17711858) Fathered the cooperative movement. A Welshman who made his fortune in the cotton trade 5. Owen had the idea of forming "villages of cooperation" where workers would drag themselves out of poverty by growing their own food, making their own clothes and ultimately becoming self-governing. He tried to form such communities inOrbistonin Scotland. 6. It was here that the first co-operative store was opened. 7. His efforts bore fruit in the international cooperative movement, launched at Rochdale, England, in 1844. Owen died on November 17, 1858, in his home town of Newtown 8. </p> <ul><li>Although Owen inspired the cooperative movement, others such asDr William King took his ideas and made them more workable and practical.</li></ul><ul><li>King believed in starting small, and realized that theworking classeswould need to set up cooperatives for themselves, so he saw his role as one of instruction .</li></ul><p>Dr William King(17861865) 9. </p> <ul><li>He founded a monthly periodical calledThe Cooperator , the first edition of which appeared onMay 1 ,1828 . This gave a mixture of cooperative philosophy and practical advice about running a shop using cooperative principles. </li></ul><p>10. </p> <ul><li>King advised people not to cut themselves off fromsociety , but rather to form a society within a society, and to start with a shop because, "We must go to a shop every day to buy food and necessarieswhy then should we not go to our own shop?" </li></ul><p>11. He proposed sensible rules, such as having a weekly account audit, having 3 trustees, and not having meetings inpubs(to avoid the temptation of drinking profits). 12. </p> <ul><li>Beatrice Webb was the author of The Co-operative Movement in Great Britain (1891). </li></ul><p>Charles Fouriershould also be mentioned as an important influence. The Pioneers established the first consumer cooperative, leading to a worldwide movement. They also experimented with a producer cooperative, which soon failed . 13. </p> <ul><li>A few poor weavers joined together to form theRochdale Equitable Pioneers Societyat the end of 1843. TheRochdale Pioneers , as they became known, set out theRochdale Principlesin 1844, which have been highly influential throughout the cooperative movement.</li></ul><p>The Rochdale Pioneers 14. </p> <ul><li>In modern form, cooperatives date from 1844,then a group of 28 impoverished weavers of Rochdale, England, founded a mutual-aid society, called the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers. </li></ul><p>15. </p> <ul><li>As its initial project, the society organized agrocery store , a venture that rapidly prospered. The principles developed for the guidance of this enterprise and others organized by the Rochdale Society have served, with codifications in emphasis, as the basic code of the consumer cooperative movement since that time.</li></ul><p>16. </p> <ul><li>Thesuccessful example of cooperative business provided by the Rochdale Society, which also established between 1850 and 1855 aflour mill, a shoe factory, and a textile plant , was quickly emulated throughout the country. </li></ul><p>17. </p> <ul><li>By 1863 more than 400 British cooperative associations, modeled after the Rochdale Society, were in operation. Thereafter the English movement grew steadily, becoming the model for similar movements worldwide. </li></ul><p>18. </p> <ul><li>By the mid-20th century, it comprised almost2,400associations of all types. The Cooperative Wholesale Society is the largest distributive agency in England. </li></ul><p>19. </p> <ul><li>( 1)democratic control, with each member entitled to only one vote, regardless of the number of his or her total shares;</li></ul><ul><li>(2) membership open to all, irrespective of race, creed, class, occupation, or political affiliation;</li></ul><ul><li>3) payment of limited interest on invested capital;</li></ul><ul><li>(4) distribution of net profits, usually called savings or earnings, to cooperative members in proportion to the amount of their patronage. </li></ul><p>Rochdale Principles 20. </p> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>part of cooperative earnings are utilized to expand operations </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>non-members may become members by letting their share of net profits be applied towards their initial share stock;</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><p>Supplemental Principles The Rochdale Society developed a number of supplemental principles, which are generally observed in contemporary consumer cooperatives. According to these: 21. </p> <ul><li>c.goods and services are sold for cash at prevailing market prices; reserve funds are regularly accumulated for the purpose of covering depreciation and meeting possible emergencies;</li></ul><ul><li>d educational activities, designed to increase and inform the cooperative membership, are systematically sponsored and conducted.</li></ul><ul><li>e. Other supplemental principles hold that labour must be fairly treated and that cooperatives should work together </li></ul><p>22. </p> <ul><li>Worldwide, some800million people are members of cooperatives, and it is estimated that cooperatives employ some100million people. </li></ul><p>World Cooperative Movement 23. UK, France, Germany, Belgium, Austria, Italy, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. 24. Notable among the European countries in whichconsumer cooperationreceived early popular support were France, Germany, Belgium, Austria, Italy, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. 25. Euros 11B housing health Credit union doctor Football club buying Whole foods care leisure consumers workers Euros 1.3 B Source:Mr. Bob Burlton Midcounties Co-operative, United Kingdom Aug. 2006 agriculture 26. </p> <ul><li>Credit unions are also established in the UK. The largest are work-based, but many are now offering services in the wider community.</li></ul><ul><li>The Association of British Credit Unions Ltd ( ABCUL ) represents the majority of British Credit Unions.</li></ul><p>Credit Union 27. both noted for promotingethical investment The UK Co-operative Group insurance providerCIS Co-operative Bank 28. Building cooperative BritishBuilding Societiesdeveloped into general-purpose savings &amp; banking institutions with "one member, one vote" ownership and can be seen as a form of financial cooperative (although many ' de-mutualised ' into conventionally-owned banks in the 1980s &amp; 1990s). 29. Building cooperative Members of a building cooperative (in Britain known as a self-build housing cooperative) pool resources to build housing, normally using a high proportion of their own labour. When the building is finished, each member is the sole owner of a homestead, and the cooperative may be dissolved . 30. </p> <ul><li>This collective effort was at the origin of many of Britain'sbuilding societies , which however developed into "permanent"mutual savings and loanorganisations, a term which persisted in some of their names (such as the formerLeeds Permanent ). </li></ul><p>31. </p> <ul><li>Nowadays such self-building may be financed using a step-by-stepmortgagewhich is released in stages as the building is completed. The term may also refer to worker cooperatives in the building trade </li></ul><p>32. Agricultural cooperative Agricultural cooperativesare widespread in rural areas. 33. out by private traders, producers In Britain agricultural marketing is carried cooperatives, and marketing boards for certain products. The number of marketing boards has been steadily reduced over the past 20 years. 34. Co-operative Wholesale Society According to cooperative economistCharles Gide ,the aim of a cooperative wholesale society is to arrange bulk purchases, and, if possible, organise production. 35. The best historical example of this were the English CWS and the Scottish CWS, which were the forerunners to the modernCo-operative Group 36. Cooperative Bank, Credit Union &amp; Coop Savings Bank The Co-operative Bank's head office, 1 Balloon Street,Manchester .The statue in front is ofRobert Owen , a pioneer in the coopmovement Credit Unionsprovide a form of cooperative banking 37. Other important European banking cooperatives include theCrdit AgricoleinFrance,Migrosand Coop Bank in Switzerland and theRaiffeisensystem in many Central and Eastern European countries .European Banking Cooperative 38. </p> <ul><li>The Netherlands, Spain, Italy and various European countries also have strong cooperative banks. They play an important part in mortgage credit. </li></ul><p>Cooperative banking networks, which were nationalized in Eastern Europe, work now as real cooperative institutions. 39. </p> <ul><li>A remarkable development has taken place inPoland ,where the SKOK ( Spdzielcze Kasy Oszczdnociowo-Kredytowe ) network has grown to serve over 1 million members via 13,000 branches, and is larger than the countrys largest conventional bank. </li></ul><ul><li>InScandinavia , there is a clear distinction betweenmutual savings banks(Sparbank) and truecredit unions(Andelsbank</li></ul><p>40. Housing cooperative Ahousing cooperativeis a legal mechanism for ownership of housing where residents either ownshares(share capital co-op) reflecting their equity in the co-operative's real estate, or have membership and occupancy rights in anot-for-profit co-operative (non-share capital co-op), and they underwrite their housing through paying subscriptions orrent . 41. InMarket-rate housing cooperatives , members may sell their shares in the cooperative whenever they like for whatever price the market will bear, much like any other residential property. Market-rate co-ops are very common inNew York City . 42. Limited Equity housing cooperatives , which are often used byaffordable housingdevelopers, allow members to own some equity in their home, but limit the sale price of their membership share to that which they bought in for. 43. Worker Cooperative </p> <ul><li>Aworker cooperativeorproducer cooperativeis a cooperative that is wholly owned and democratically controlled by its "worker-owners". There are no outside, or consumer owners, in a workers' cooperative. Only the workers own shares of the business. Membership is not compulsory for employees, but only employees can become members</li></ul><p>44. Mutual Insurance Insurance companies are owned by their shareholders, who in return for providing the company with capital by their share purchases, share in the profits in the form of dividends. 45. </p> <ul><li>Mutual insurance companies, however, do not issue shares but operate solely on the money obtained as premiums; these organizations are owned by the policyholders, who share in the profits and losses . </li></ul><p>46. Retailers' cooperative Aretailers' cooperative(often known as a secondary or marketing co-operative in the UK) is an organization which employseconomies of scaleon behalf of its members to get discounts from manufacturers and to pool marketing. It is common for locally-ownedgrocery stores ,hardware storesandpharmacies . In this case the members of the cooperative are businesses rather than individuals. 47. Social Cooperative Social cooperativesare legally defined as follows: the objective is the general benefit of the community and the social integration of citizenstype Acooperatives provide health, social or educational servicestype Bintegrate disadvantaged people into the labour market. The categories of disadvantage they target may include physical and mental disability, drug and alcohol addiction, developmental disorders and problems with the law. 48. Consumers Cooperative A consumers' cooperative is a business owned by its customers. Employees can also generally become members. Members vote on major decisions, and elect the board of directors from amongst their own number. A well known example in the United States is theREI (Recreational Equipment Incorporated) co-op, and in Canada:Mountain Equipment Co-op . 49. The world's largest consumer cooperative isthe Co-operative Groupin theUnited Kingdom , which offers a variety of retail and financial services. There are also a number of other, independent consumer cooperative societies in the UK, such as theEast of England Co-operative SocietyandMidcounties Co-operative . 50. </p> <ul><li>In fact the Co-operative Group is actually something of ahybrid,having both corporate members (other consumer cooperatives) and individual members </li></ul><p>51. Utility cooperative Autility cooperativeis apublic utilitythat is owned by its customers. It is a type ofconsumers' cooperative . In the US, many such cooperatives were formed to provide rural electrical and telephone service 52. </p> <ul><li>UK co-operatives retain a significant market share infood retail , insurance, banking, funeral services, and the travel industry in many parts of the country. </li></ul><p>53. </p> <ul><li>In the UK, cooperatives formed theCo-operative Partyin the early 20th century to represent members of co-ops in Parliament.</li></ul><ul><li>The Co-operative Party now has a permanent electoral pact with theLabour Party , and has 29 Members of parliament who were elected at the 2005 General Election as 'Labour and Co-operative'MPs .</li></ul><p>Co-operative Party 54. Denmark 55. Denmark A notable feature of agriculture in Denmark is the influence of the cooperative movement. Cooperative associations dominate the production of dairy products and bacon. A large percentage of agricultural produce is sold through marketing cooperatives. 56. </p> <ul><li>Most cooperatives are organized in national associations, which are members of the Agricultural Council, the central agency for the cooperatives in dealings with the government and industry, and in foreign trade </li></ul><p>57. Germany </p> <ul><li>Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen , the founder of theco-operative movementofcredit unions </li></ul><p>58. </p> <ul><li>Raiffeisen Zentralbank , a cooperative bank based in Austria, and operating in Eastern Europe</li></ul><ul><li>Bundesverband der Deutschen Volksbanken und Raiffeisenbanken , a federation of Raiffeisen</li></ul><ul><li>cooperatives in Germany</li></ul><ul><li>Schweizer Verband der Raiffeisenbanken , the federation of Raiffeisen cooperative banks in Switzerland</li></ul><p>Germany 59. Netherlands Rabobank ,cooperative bank in the Netherlands 60. </p> <ul><li>Nestle </li></ul><ul><li>Dean Food </li></ul><ul><li>Dairy Farmers of America-Coop </li></ul><ul><li>Danone </li></ul><ul><li>Fonferra-Coop </li></ul><ul><li>Kraft </li></ul><ul><li>Land oLakes-Coop </li></ul><ul><li>Lactalis </li></ul><ul><li>Aria Foods-Coop </li></ul><ul><li>Meilli Dairies </li></ul><ul><li>Friesland Foods-Coop </li></ul><ul><li>Uniliver </li></ul><ul><li>Morinaga Milk Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Parmalat </li></ul><ul><li>Campina- Coop </li></ul><ul><li>Bongrain </li></ul><ul><li>Human Milchunion- Coop </li></ul><ul><li>Saputo </li></ul><ul><li>Nordmilch-Coop</li></ul><ul><li>Sodiaal -Coop </li></ul><p>Worlds dairy top 20 includes 8 co-operatives 61. 1.Vion-meat 2.Friesland Foods-dairy 3.Campina- dairy 4.FloraHolland- ornamental 5.Biomenveilling Aaismeer- ornamental 6.The Greenery- vegetables 7.Cosum- sugar8.Cehava Landbouwbelang- supply9.Avebe-starch 10.Cabeco Group- Supply, poultry 11.Agrifirm- supply 12.CNB- ornamental 13.DOC Kaas- dairy 14.FresQ- fruits 15.ForFarmers- supply 16.Fruitmasters Group- fruit17.Agrico- potatoes 18.CZAV- grains 19.CNC- mushrooms 20.HZPC- potatoes NETHERLAND FOOD &amp; AGRI CO-OP TOP 20 62. a.market oriented and entrepreneurial b.member interests in market development c.capitalization and voting...</p>