1 EDU 5818 INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION SEM 1 2014-15 EDU 5818 INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION SEM 1 2014-15 EDU 5818 INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION Dr. Ramli Bin Basri.

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1 EDU 5818 INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION SEM 1 2014-15 EDU 5818 INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION SEM 1 2014-15 EDU 5818 INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION Dr. Ramli Bin Basri Jabatan Asas Pendidikan Fakulti Pengajian Pendidikan Universiti Putra Malaysia Room G28 Tel: 019 224 1332 SMS PREFERED Emel: ramlibasri@upm.edu.my EDU 5818 INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION Dr. Ramli Bin Basri Jabatan Asas Pendidikan Fakulti Pengajian Pendidikan Universiti Putra Malaysia Room G28 Tel: 019 224 1332 SMS PREFERED Emel: ramlibasri@upm.edu.my Slide 2 L1-DEVELOPMENT OF INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION Supervision a redefinition. (7th ed.) Boston: Mc Graw Hill. (UPM Library LB2806.4 S484 2002 Slide 3 AKTIVITI MINGGU 1 1.Perbincangan tentang penyeliaan 2.Penerangan tentang sinopsis dan rancangan kursus 3.Penjelasan tentang penilaian kursus. 4.Kuliah 1 5.Perbincangan mengenai artikel 1 dan 2 3 Slide 4 WHY INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION? as the most significant and costly resource in schools, teachers are central to school improvement efforts. Improving the efficiency and equity of schooling depends in large measure, on ensuring that competent people want to work as teachers, that their teaching of high quality, and that all students have access to high quality teaching. [Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD); petikan daripada PIPP KPM 2007; hal 106] 4 Slide 5 CONTENTS 1.Traditional view of instructional supervision 2.Models of supervision 3.Development of teacher evaluation 4.Further readings 5.Assignment 5 Slide 6 Traditional View of Instructional Supervision How many times have been observed in the classroom? Let us discuss your experience and reflections (you, supervisors and administrators). Why such perceptions? What are factors? What are the antecedents? History of schools in the late 19 th century. 6 Slide 7 Model 1: Supervision as Inspection Inspection from late 19 th century School infrastructure Teachers competency (to retain or to dismiss teachers) Improve instruction To achieve quality schooling, quality instruction, order to school system Supervision by visitation using autocratic methods and procedures (check lists and quality scales) Inspectorial and impressionistic. 7 Slide 8 Model 2: Supervision as Social Efficiency Inspection in early 20 th century Factors: Efficiency movement (learnt from industry), bureaucratization of education and supervision and based on The Principles of Scientific Management and Efficiency. Taylorism employed scientific and professional supervisory methods 8 Slide 9 ..Inspection in early 20 th century Scientistic and bureaucratic methods of supervision aimed not at professionalizing but finding legitimate and secure niche for control-oriented supervision within school bureaucracy. 9 Model 2: Supervision as Social Efficiency Slide 10 Inspection in early 20 th century Teacher rating using scientific rating scales or schemes to measure teacher efficiency Employ teacher efficiency rating scale To promote development and improvement of teachers and to retain efficient teachers. Supervision as a bureaucratic tool for compliance to quality schooling. 10 Slide 11 Model 2: Supervision as Social Efficiency Inspection in early 20 th century Weaknesses of teacher efficiency rating scale 1.Not aimed at teacher improvement but to conform; 2.Abstract and biased; and 3.Classification of traits of teachers used in the scales were ambiguous and ill defined. 4.Seen as ways to categorizing, stigmatizing, and controlling teachers behavior or used for promotion and salary increment. 11 Slide 12 Model 3: Democratic Supervision Democracy as an ideology, in 1920s and 30s Theme for supervision 1920s supervision for improvement not rating efficiency Factors in democratic supervision: James Hosic, 1920: 1.Clear delimitation of supervisory function; 2.Genuine constructive leadership; 3.Professional preparation of supervisors; 4.Using scientific and impersonal standard of supervision; 5.Recognition of human element. 12 Slide 13 Model 3: Democratic Supervision Supervision is an expert technical service primarily concerned with improving the conditions which surround learning Burton, 1937 Later model of supervision based on democratic model Democracy in supervision implied a deep concern for human relationships Encouraged and respected the dignity of teachers. 13 Slide 14 Model 4: Scientific Supervision Rather than rating, more desirable to have objectively determined item to evaluate teachers, ie scientific method of supervision Supervisors as trained professionals in both the science of instructing pupils and science in instructing teachers (Barr, 1931) 14 Slide 15 Model 4: Scientific Supervision Teaching broken into specific parts, each with its own standards (Barr, 1931) The ends of supervision is when teacher and supervisor works in coordinated fashion (Newlands, 1923) Supervisors involved in curriculum everyone who is helping teachers to do better and more satisfying job, is a supervisor (Rogers, 1945) 15 Slide 16 Model 5: Supervision as Leadership 1960s, Supervision as a leadership function, supervision focusing on areas: 1.Developing mutually acceptable goals; 2.Extending corporative and democratic methods of supervision; 3.Improving classroom instruction; 4.Promoting research into classroom problems (action research); and 5.Promoting professional leadership. 16 Slide 17 Model 6: Clinical Supervision 1970s, alternatives to traditional practice, CS (Hill, 1968; Coogan, 1973) Teaching could be improved by a prescribed, formal process of collaboration between teacher and supervisor Emphasis on collegiality, collaboration, assistance and improvement of instruction. CS cycle: preconference, observation and post observation conference 17 Slide 18 Post 1980s Supervision Models Developmental supervision (Glickman, 1981) Transformational leadership (Burns, 1978; Sergiovani, 1990) Teacher empowerment (Darling-Harmond & Goodwin, 1993) Teacher as leader Peer supervision (Clarke & Richardson, 1986) Cognitive coaching (Costa & Garmstron, 1986) Instructional leadership. 18 Slide 19 Instructional Leadership Origin: effective schools Premise: Principle as the primary source of educational expertise-instructional leader (head count, tov, oti1, oti2, etc ; melindungui waktu pembelajaran; penyeliaan guru) Aimed at standardizing the practice of effective teaching 19 Slide 20 Instructional Leadership Principle role: 1.Maintain high expectation for teachers and students 2.Supervise classroom instruction 3.Coordinate school curriculum 4.Monitor students progress 20 Slide 21 Transformational Leadership Focus on problem finding, problem solving, and collaboration with stakeholder Goal: improving organizational performance 21 Slide 22 Transformational Leadership Principles role: motivate followers by raising consciousness about the importance of organizational goals by inspiring them to go beyond self interest for the sake of the school 22 Slide 23 Transformational Leadership Principles role: to exhibits 1.Idealized influence 2.Inspirational motivation 3.Intellectual stimulation 4.Individualized consideration. 23 Slide 24 DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHER EVALUATION Before 70s Drop in with a check list 80s Clinical and artistic strategies -Supervision is mandated for training -Based on teaching effectiveness, school effectiveness and instructional leadership theories 90s Promoting teacher development and building professional community of teachers 24 Slide 25 2000s Standards and accountability towards school improvement -Teacher professionalism -Teacher evaluation for school improvement -Culture of continuous learning environment where teachers are part of communities of practice -Capacity building through leading and learning together 25 Slide 26 NOW Standard, accountability, quality, excellence, competitiveness and Key Performance Indicators (KPI) QUESTION: What is the way forwards for teachers? 26 Slide 27 SUMMARY Supervision since late 19 th century till now Begins with autocratic and inspectorial, bureaucratic and social efficiency, democratic, scientific and professional Democratic variants from 1960s Supervision as leadership function, Clinical Supervision, Collaborative Supervision, Instructional Leadership, Transformational Leadership 27 Slide 28 SUMMARY To raise the standard of teaching teachers have to be part of the Community of professional where they are engaged in - Leading and learning together -Guided by standards for accountability. 28 Slide 29 FURTHER READINGS: JOURNAL ARTICLE 1.Education Horizon 2008: Twelve Characteristics of an Effective Teacher 2.Education Administration Quarterly Principal Leadership and School Performance: An Integration of Transformational and Instructional Leadership 29 Slide 30 Assignments 1.Sit in your friends class, observe his/her teaching and report your reflections. Build on your reflection as the class move on. 2.Ask your friend to observe your teaching, discuss and report his/her reflection 3.What are the characteristics of an effective teachers? Ask your students, fellow teachers and your school administrators. Prepare your report in the next class. 30 Slide 31 REFERENCE Histories, Antecedents, and Legacies of School Supervision. Jeffrey Glanz, Kean University of New Jersey pages 39-79, Handbook of Research on School Supervision, Gerald R. Firth & Edward F. Pajak (Ed), 1998.(UPM Library LB 2806.4 H236) 31 Slide 32 Thank you

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