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1997 Issue 2 - Sermon on Luke 6:17-49 - The Sermon on the Mount According to Luke - Counsel of Chalcedon

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  • 8/12/2019 1997 Issue 2 - Sermon on Luke 6:17-49 - The Sermon on the Mount According to Luke - Counsel of Chalcedon

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    Introduction

    .The ennon On the Mount in

    Matthew 5-7 and Luke 6

    Matthew

    5-7

    has

    be

    en called

    The Sermon

    on

    the Mount and

    Luke 6:17-49 has been called The

    Sermon

    on

    the Plain,

    as

    if they

    were two different sermons on two

    different occasions. The reasons

    given are basically three: (1). the

    sermon

    in Luke is much shorter

    th

    an the cine

    in Matthew;

    (2). Matthew

    includes

    things not

    mentioned

    in

    Luke; Luke

    includes

    things

    not

    mentioned in

    Matthew;

    and

    some of Luke's

    statements are

    different in

    form

    and

    application

    from those in

    Matthew; and

    , (3), whereaS'Matthew's has the

    . sermQIl. taking place on the

    mountain, . .

    5:1,Luke s

    takes place

    on a level

    place, ' 6:17, after Jesus

    cawe down from the mountain,

    . 6:1:l

    , l T.

    . . .

    .. -However, there .are several

    reasons to believe that the accountS

    of

    Luke and

    of

    Matthew are of the

    same sermon preached at the same

    location;

    and

    furthermore, there

    are reasonable answers to the

    above objections.

    (1).

    The

    beginning and ending of both

    . discourses , as wll as the general

    course of thought of each, reveal a

    t\lorough agree.ment with one

    another. (2). The historical

    circumstances which follow both

    discourses are the same, Mat. 8:5;

    Lk.7:1,2. (3). The differences

    between the discourses of Luke

    and Matthew do not appear as

    obstacles to our view when it is

    remembered that neither Luke nor

    Matthew profess to give Christ's

    sermon in its complete form, but

    rather present

    it

    as a summary of

    His teaching. Surely Christ

    explained, illustrated and

    elaboratec,l on His subject

    just

    as

    any other teacher would do. The

    variations of expression, and even

    of

    sentiment found in Luke are not

    in any sense contrary to, much less

    their system of theology and ethics,

    nor

    quote from their traditions, .

    while Matthew fires every gun in

    his armory against them and their

    system, does not refute out view, .

    because

    it

    is not always necessary

    to cite an error in order to refute it .

    It is often suffldent to set up, 0 '

    even

    to

    state the trut

    h,

    and error

    shrinks away from its clear shining

    light.- Shearer 21. (6). It does not

    surprise us that Luke adds things

    Matthew does not include in. the

    Sermon, because as we have seen

    several times in our study of LUke s

    Gospel, while Luke used Matthew .

    as a resource, he also had other

    resources possibly

    not

    a

    va

    ilable

    to

    '

    Matthew, (7).

    Lastly, Luke

    . sends Jesus up

    the mountain

    in v, 12, and

    He now comes

    doWn only far

    enough to

    reach'a' level

    place so that

    all thl.sgreat .

    . ' mass of people .

    ,; , can hear

    him

    : '

    On a spot that

    .Was raised a

    M , ) f ;

    e ~ I i ~ l l t l

    i / , l \ . l i I

    bit so chat all

    might see Him

    He sat down

    (Matthew). It

    is

    contrary to the

    ontradictory of, the words and

    statements of Matthew,

    but

    they

    both readily blend into a

    harmonious whole. - Shearer, pg.

    21. (4). It must also be

    'remembered that Matthew wrote

    especially for the Jewish people,

    and Luke wrote especially for

    non-Jewish, Gentile people. They

    each used such weasure and forms

    of

    the words of Christ as suited

    their respective purposes, without

    any implication of garbling,

    perverSion, distortion,

    or

    suppression of the truth. - Shearer,

    pg.21. (5). The fact that Luke

    does not mention the Pharisees or

    facts to think of two sermons ...

    ;

    ,

    Lenski.

    he Purpose of the

    Sermon On

    the

    Mount

    The Sermon

    on

    the Mount is

    an exhaustive discuSsion of

    Phariseeism. Christ expounds the

    Law against the tradition

    l

    of the

    elders, and against PharisaiC

    glosses and interpretations. It is

    the refutation of the last great

    heresy of the ages, and the

    overthrow of the last great bulwark

    erected by Satan agaiIist the

    tiuth

    ,

    that master stroke of'cunning by

    4

    ~ l l I E - C ( ) U N S E t

    of Chalcedon f February, 1997

    ..

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  • 8/12/2019 1997 Issue 2 - Sermon on Luke 6:17-49 - The Sermon on the Mount According to Luke - Counsel of Chalcedon

    2/6

    which he substituted the

    deceitfulness of sin

    in

    place of holy

    living,

    and

    a refuge of lies in place

    of

    the

    Divine Law."- Shearer, pg.

    16f.

    In this sermon Jesus'exposes

    and refutes the four characteristics

    of Phariseeism: Literalism, Mat.

    5:21-48, ForrrWism, Mat.

    6:1-113,

    Covetousness, Mat. 6:19-34, and

    Censoriousness, Mat, 7:1-6.

    The Expose and Refutation o

    the

    LiteJ lllism

    o the

    PI.arisees

    (Mat. 5:21-48)

    "In the narrower sense,

    literalism substitutes the letter

    of

    the law for its spirit. In the

    broader and proper sense, it

    is

    a

    THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT,

    pgs.50-53.

    Jesus refutes this Literalism of

    the Pharisees

    under

    eight

    sub-heads:

    (1).

    PersonalEthics,

    5:21-30; (2) . Family Ethics,

    5:31-32; (3). Social Ethics,

    5:3337; (4). Private Revenge,

    5:38,39; (5). True Honesty, 5:40;

    (6). True Loyalty, 5:41; (7). True

    Generosity, 5:42; and (8).

    The

    Law

    of Love, 5:23-48.

    The Expose and Refutation

    o

    the

    Fonnalism o tlte Pharisees

    (Mat.

    6:1-18)

    "Literalism and Formalism are

    kindred heresies, and

    we may

    expect to find the Literalist to be

    also a Formalist.

    We

    have seen

    worship

    in its

    place.

    "- Shearer, pgs.

    92-93.

    Jesus refutes Formalism

    under

    three head (1). almsgiving, Mat.

    6:2-4: (2). prayer, Mat. 6:5-15; arid

    (3). fasting, Mat. 6:16-18.

    The Expose and Refutation oj ti,e

    Covetousness o the Pharisees

    Mat. 6:19-34)

    The third characteristic of

    Phariseeism

    that

    Jesus exposes

    and

    refutes is CovetousneSs. "The

    covetous

    man

    seeks some worldly

    good to which

    he

    is

    not

    fairly

    entitled, and

    he

    scruples at nothing

    to obtain' it. Covetousness is the

    inspiration of the hypocrite and

    the

    counterfeiter alike. They

    both

    expect to make

    something

    out of

    alse philosophy

    of

    rMrals, which

    destroys all real moral

    distinctions. This false

    philosophy was the source of

    l ' . ,

    ,

    , ,

    , Y >

    c,[,Earthly"

    l'eaSU1 e$'ib,:aYe

    ;;,

    their

    devices. -- Covetousness

    and

    hypocrisy make the bigot

    in large measure.... We have

    seen that the worship of the

    Pharisees did

    not

    rise above

    the rewards of this world, an(

    those of a most ephemeral

    kind---mere

    human

    applause,

    all the viciouS teachings of the

    Pharisees. --- (1). It makes

    written law the basis

    and

    limit

    of moral obligation. --

    (claiming) that a thing is right

    only because God commands

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