A2 Physical Education Sport PsychologyRevision week 1PERSONALITY AND AROUSAL
Week 1Aspects of personalityArousalWeek 2Controlling anxietyAttitudesWeek 3AggressionConfidenceWeek 4Attribution theoryGroup successWeek 5Leadership and any questions
Aspects of personality traffic light sheet
What do I know?What do I need to know?Anything new that Ive learnt
Personality TIPS!Make sure you learn the specific definition of personality!Have awareness of the links between personality and sports performance.It is important to understand the NATURE (trait) V NURTURE (social learning) and interactionist perspectives of behaviour.Learn the strengths and weaknesses of each perspective.Be aware of the problems associated with the use of personality profiling in sport.
Personality The sum total of an individuals characteristics which make him unique (Hollander). Personality is the more or less stable and enduring organisation of a persons character, temperament, intellect and physique which determines the unique adjustment to the environment (Eysenck).
Personality TypesINTROVERTShy, timid, reserved, aloof, self sufficientEXTROVERTAdventurous, confident,Sociable, Group dependent, enthusiasticTYPE AHighly competitive,Strong desire to succeed,Works fast, likes to control, Prone to suffer stress TYPE BNon-competitive, Unambitious,Works more slowly,Does not enjoy controlLess prone to stressTRAITSNARROW BAND APPROACH, GIRDANO, 1990
Personality Theories - PMITrait Theory (nature)People are born with established personality characteristicsInherited at birth. StableEnduringconsistent in all situations. BEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF PERSONALITY +ve = Can be easily measured through questionnaires-ve = Does not take into account environmental influences. It is not a true indicator of behaviour.CATTELL (1965) identified 16 personality traitsINTROVERT & EXTROVERTSocial Learning Theory (Bandura)All behaviour is learned through interaction with the environmentBEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF ENVIRONMENT-ve = Does not consider inherited behaviour (traits)NATURE vs NURTUREInteractionist TheoryBehaviour occurs from the interaction between inherited traits and learned experiencesBEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF PERSONALITY ENVIRNOMENT
Personality TheoriesConcentric Ring Theory (Hollander 1967)
The boundary line of each layer gets wider as you get closer to the centre of the model which shows that each layer is harder to enter. As you move closer to the centre, your real personality begins to surfaceRole Related Behaviour Surface of personalityTypical Response Your usual response in most situations The Psychological Core The real you
Personality TheoriesEysencks Personality Types
INTROVERTNEUROTIC(UNSTABLE)EXTROVERTSTABLEPersonality traits run across 2 continuums:INTROVERT: unsociable, shy & nervousEXTROVERT: sociable, outgoing & livelySTABLE: calm, even-tempered, controlled 7 logicalUNSTABLE: anxious, moody, unpredictable & illogicalWhat is the role of RAS?
Personality Testing Pg114 Methods of TestingObservationPsychometric methods: self report questionnaires (16 personality factor questionnaire designed by CATTELL) EPI, SCAT, CSAI-2
ProblemsQuestionnaires, observations and self-reports are not reliable as people can fix answers.Evidence is too general personality alone can not predict behaviour.Although there is a link between personality research and performance in sport, there is lack of evidence to support this.
POMS Can you think of an acronym? Iceberg profile
Exam questions on motivation
Achievement Motivation TIPS!You need to understand the meaning of the term achievement motivation.Make sure you know the characteristics of the different personality types You need to be aware of the links between personality and the motive to achieve.
Achievement Motivation Achievement Motivation is a concept developed by sports psychologists to link PERSONALITY and COMPETITIVENESS. The major issue centres on the extent to which an INDIVIDUAL IS MOTIVATED TO ATTAIN SUCCESS.Success in sport is measured against some type of COMPETITIVE GOAL.
Atkinson & McClelland (1976) Interactionist ViewCompetitive orientation is generated through personality and situational factorsIn any challenging situation, everyone will have both a need to achieve and a need to avoid failure. Whichever feeling is stronger will determine whether the task is accepted or declined.
Personality FactorsA = TASsomeone with a high need to achieve will probably have a low need to avoid failure and will choose difficult or demanding tasks which are more risky, e.g.the hard route up a rock faceB = TAFsomeone with a high need to avoid failure will probably have a low need to achieve and will choose tasks which are less risky and more easily achieved, e.g. the easy route up the rock faceTAS = Tendency to APPROACH successTAF = Tendency to AVOID failure
Situational FactorsA =If the probability of success low (competing against the world champion) you will strive very hard to win (incentive high). You will be highly chuffed if you win.B =If the probability of success high (competing in local club match) you dont need to try as hard to win (incentive low and expect to win easily). It is not so pleasing if you win.
What can the coach do?IMPROVE NEED AND MOTIVE TO ACHIEVE (Nach)
Increase positive reinforcement hence increasing pride and satisfaction Ensure that goals are achievable Ensure that at least some situations guarantee successand subsequently gradually increase task difficulty in line with progress Ensure that tasks are challenging Ensure that the probability of success is good Ensure that the incentive value of the success is high (is the race worth winning?)
REDUCE TENDENCY AND MOTIVE TO AVOID FAILURE (NaF)
Reduce punishment hence lowering the chance of performer worrying about failure Focus negative feedback on effort rather than ability. This avoids the performer tending to believe that causes of failure are internal (due to lack of ability for example) and reduces the risk of learned helplessness. Avoid situations where defeat / failure is inevitable (such as performing against a much superior opponent)if this is not possible alter the criteria for success (you will have succeeded if you only lose by 2 goals).What can the coach do?
Types of GoalsAccording to BIDDLE, there are several types of goal against which success can be judged: MASTERY or TASK GOALS: Associated with self-improvement, e.g. trying to achieve a PB in athletics (the same as PROCESS GOALS). EGO or ABILITY GOALS: Involve a comparison against ones rivals, e.g. beating everyone else to win the club tennis tournament (the same as OUTCOME GOALS) SOCIALLY APPROVED GOALS: Involves seeking social reinforcement as a measure of success, e.g. winning to earn approval from parents or coaches.THINK BACK TO GOALS FROM AS SKILL!
Review the syllabusDevise two personality questions (3 and 4 marks)Devise a personality essay question (14 marks)
Aspects of personality traffic light sheet
Anything new that Ive learnt
A2 Physical Education Sport PsychologyRevisionArousal
Name and describe the three theories of..?
Reticular activating system (RAS)
P = f (H X D)
Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (Hanin)Athlete A(low ZOF)Athlete B(moderate ZOF)Athlete C(high ZOF)In zone(best performance)Out of zoneOut of zoneIn zone(best performance)Out of zoneOut of zoneIn zone(best performance)Increasing ArousalAn athlete will enter the zone when arousal is at an optimum level and the situation matches the athletes strongest attentional style.
Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (Hanin)Different people perform better under different (arousal) conditions:
PersonalityTask TypeStage of LearningExperienceLow Zone of Functioning(low arousal)INTROVERTSIMPLE/ GROSS SKILLS, E.G. SHOT PUTCOGNITIVE/ ASSOCIATIVE PHASENOVICE PERFORMERSHigh Zone of Functioning(high arousal)EXTROVERTCOMPLEX/ FINE SKILLS, E.G. SPIN BOWLINGAUTONOMOUS EXPERIENCED PERFORMER
Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (Hanin)Teachers and coaches should guide the performer towards their personal optimal threshold or individual zone of optimal functioning.IN THEZONE!EFFORTLESS PERFORMANCETHE ATHLETE FEELS IN FULL CONTROLATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION OF THE PERFORMER IS FOCUSEDEXECUTION OF THE SKILL BRINGS ENJOYMENT AND SATISFACTION
Attentional narrowingCue utilisation theory
Stress management techniques
PEAK FLOW Pg 137 PEAK FLOW: Optimal experience that facilitates best performance and is intrinsically valuable. (Csikzentmimalyi)Excitement,happinessRelaxation, Drowsiness Anxiety,angerBoredomfatigueHigh somatic arousalLow somatic arousalHigh cognitiveArousal anxietyLow cognitiveArousal anxiety Peak flow occurs when somatic anxiety has reached an appropriate threshold and cognitive anxiety is low. flow state is attained when the performer has a balanced perception of the demands of the situation and his/her ability to cope. a high incentive value is to be gained from a challenge that is both realistic and attainable.The focus of attention and concentration is maximised. there is a self-confident belief that nothing could go wrong. the situation suits the athletes strongest attentional style. During these rare moments in sport, the athlete assumes control over all internal and environmental variables and a time of greatest happiness and self-fulfilment is experienced.
Review the syllabus traffic light sheetDevise two arousal questions (3 and 4 marks)Devise an arousal essay question (14 marks)
Next week and homework pg 127 and 139
Week 1Aspects of personalityArousalWeek 2Controlling anxietyAttitudesWeek 3AggressionConfidenceWeek 4Attribution theoryGroup successWeek 5Leadership