AJP-3.x.x NATO STANDARD ALLIED JOINT DOCTRINE FOR SECURITY ...issat.dcaf.ch/content/download/86819/1514911/file/20150109-SFA...ALLIED JOINT DOCTRINE FOR SECURITY FORCE ASSISTANCE

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    NATO STANDARD

    AJP-3.X.X

    ALLIED JOINT DOCTRINE FOR SECURITY FORCE ASSISTANCE

    STUDY DRAFT 2 (Dec 2014)

    NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION

    ALLIED JOINT PUBLICATION

    Published by the

    NATO STANDARDIZATION AGENCY OFFICE (NSO)

    NATO/OTAN

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    NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO)

    NATO STANDARDIZATION OFFICE (NSO)

    NATO LETTER OF PROMULGATION

    Dr. Cihangir Aksit, TUR Civ

    Director NATO Standardization Agency

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    Reserved for national letter of promulgation

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    Record of reservations

    Chapter Record of reservation by nations

    Note: The reservations listed on this page include only those that were recorded at time of promulgation and may not be complete. Refer to the NATO Standardization Database for the complete list of existing reservations.

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    Record of specific reservations

    [nation] [detail of reservation]

    Note: The reservations listed on this page include only those that were recorded at time of promulgation and may not be complete. Refer to the NATO Standardization Database for the complete list of existing reservations.

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    References

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    PREFACE 01. AJP 3.x.x Allied Joint Doctrine for Security Force Assistance doctrine is intended for

    use by NATO-led forces. However, this doctrine can be used as a reference by other military or civilian actors. The requirement to train and develop local forces1 capabilities, as part of NATO's contribution to a comprehensive approach,2 is integral to the success of a broader strategy aimed at reinforcing the military capacity of non-NATO nations within the framework of Defence and relevant security capacity building.

    02. This doctrine outlines direction and guidance on how NATO provides security force assistance (SFA). SFA activities are applicable at all levels of operations: military strategic, operational and tactical.3 NATO SFA activities require North Atlantic Council (NAC) approval and should contribute towards a strategic end-state.

    Conceptual linkages

    03. SFA relates to, and its implementation will impact upon, other NATO concepts and policies, including the areas described below.

    a. Non-Article 5 crisis response operations (NA5CRO). NA5CRO include multifunctional operations, falling outside the scope of Article 5, which contribute to conflict prevention and resolution or serve humanitarian purpose and crisis management in the pursuit of declared Alliance objectives.4 As NA5CRO may include conducting all types of military activities, such as offence, defence, stability and enabling,5 SFA may play a pivotal role or merely contribute to the overall strategic aims of the operation.

    b. Security sector reform. Security sector reform is the: restoration or the transformation of a country's security institutions which includes all actors, their roles, responsibilities and actions, so that it is managed and operated effectively, legitimately and accountably in a manner that is more consistent with sound principles of good governance and thus contributes to a well

    1 Local forces are indigenous, non-NATO, military security forces. 2 For more on NATOs contribution to a comprehensive approach, see Allied Joint Publication (AJP)-01 Allied Joint Doctrine, Chapter 2. See also: PO(2011)0045, Updated List of Tasks for the Implementation of the Comprehensive Approach Action Plan and the Lisbon Summit Decisions on the Comprehensive Approach, 04 March 2011. 3 As described in AJP-01(D) Allied Joint Doctrine. 4 AJP-3.4(A) Allied Joint Doctrine for non-Article 5 Crisis Response Operations, October 2010. Also, see MC 0327/2 para 18. 5 AJP-3.2, Allied Joint Doctrine for Land Operations, October 2009 describes military activities as offensive, defensive, stability and enabling.

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    functioning security framework.6 Security sector reform is a long-term effort, requiring extensive resources and participation of many security sector participants. Stability and reconstruction activities usually come first, near or immediately after conflict. Security sector reform requires stabilization and reconstruction to succeed first to provide a stable environment for security sector reform to take place. SFA may form, or be part of, NATO's contribution to security sector reform, which is led by the host-nation with the support of the international community. To ensure comparative advantages are levered, NATO SFA action must be planned and coordinated at all levels with the other security sector reform-involved actors. When provided to indigenous, non-NATO military security forces, SFA directly contributes to Defence reform which is the transformation or development of defence organizations and institutions, including the appropriate oversight and management bodies, so that they play an effective, legitimate and legally accountable role within the security sector. SFA is a key subset of security sector reform.7

    c. Stabilization and reconstruction. Stabilization and reconstruction efforts aim to address complex problems in fragile, conflict and post-conflict states. Such efforts contribute to a comprehensive approach to crisis management throughout international community's efforts towards security, development and governance.8 Stabilization and reconstruction can include the support of security sector reform and providing SFA activities.

    d. Military assistance. Military assistance comprises a broad range of action that supports and influences critical friendly assets through training, advising, mentoring or the conduct of operations. The range of military assistance is thus considerable and includes, but is not limited to:

    capability building of friendly forces;

    engagement with local, regional and national leadership or organisations; and

    civic actions supporting and influencing the local population.

    The range of military assistance is thus considerable, and may vary from providing low-level military training or material assistance to actively employing indigenous forces in conducting major operations. Military

    6 Working definition: MC 0578, MC Concept for Military Support to Defence Reform, 23 February 2009. 7 Working definition: MC 0578, MC Concept for Military Support to Defence Reform, 23 February 2009. 8 PO(2010)0140, Political Guidance on Ways to Improve NATO's Involvement in Stabilisation and Reconstruction, 06 October 2010.

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    assistance activities may include the following.

    (1) Training. These are activities that train host nation military individuals and units. They also provide advice and assistance to military leaders as well as training on tactics, techniques, and procedures. This enables a host nation to protect itself from threats and develop individual, leader, and organizational skills.

    (2) Advising. These are integrated (NATO and host nation forces) activities that strengthen population security by providing active participation in military operations.

    e. Counter-insurgency. Counter-insurgency (COIN) is defined as the comprehensive and military efforts to defeat an insurgency and to address any core grievances.9 SFA can form part of the military contribution to COIN.

    f. Stability Policing10. A set of police related activities which contributes to the restoration and/or upholding of the public order and security, rule of law, the protection of human rights in order to enable the development of a sustainable peace, through reinforcing and/or temporary replacing of the indigenous police. Stability Policing and SFA are the two aspects of contribution to the development of security forces. Stability Policing focuses its activities on the police forces whereas SFA activities will address the development of military forces.

    Related documents11

    04. Allied Joint Doctrine for Security Force Assistance (SFA) is topically related to and should be read in concert with:

    a. AJP-01(D) Allied Joint Doctrine; .

    b. AJP-3(B) Allied Joint Doctrine for the Conduct of Operations; and

    c. AJP-5 Allied Joint Doctrine for Operational-Level Planning.