An Assessment of Fish Production at Fish Hatcheries in East

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<ul><li><p>An Assessment of Fish Production at Fish Hatcheries in East Tennessee </p><p>A Research Paper Presented for the Master of Science in Agriculture and Natural Resources Degree </p><p>The University of Tennessee at Martin </p><p>Submitted by Drew McCrary May 2012 </p></li><li><p>ii </p><p> ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS </p><p> I would like to thank those who gave so much of their time to help me complete this </p><p>accomplishment in my life. I would like to acknowledge all of my professors from UT Martin. </p><p>Without them, this project would have never been possible. I would like to thank Dr. Barbara </p><p>Darroch for her assistance in the statistical portion of this project and for dealing with all of my </p><p>questions during my two year tenure at UT Martin. Every one of my professors made me realize </p><p>my potential in both school and life. Thank you for making me a part of the MSANR family. </p><p> An extremely special thanks goes to my wife, Megan McCrary for her understanding, </p><p>love, and encouragement through my graduate career. </p><p> Special acknowledgement for Jim and Vicki McCrary for being amazing parents and </p><p>always being there for me and encouraging my curiosity in life and science. </p><p> A very special thanks also goes out to Mr. Mike Smith, manager of Eagle Bend Hatchery </p><p>for his time and patience in allowing me to collect data from him. </p></li><li><p>iii </p><p>ABSTRACT </p><p>Fish hatcheries can be important to the survival of freshwater fish species to offset the </p><p>effects of overfishing and environmental issues affecting fish populations in lakes, rivers and </p><p>ponds. Determining effective management strategies for fish hatcheries can be a difficult and </p><p>time consuming task. This study examined data from Eagle Bend Fish Hatchery in Clinton, TN </p><p>to look at factors that affect mortality of hatchery-raised warm water fish. </p><p>Data on fish production at Eagle Bend Hatchery in 2007 to 2011 were used in this study. </p><p>Data included pond size, number of fish stocked, number of fish harvested, mortality, number of </p><p>fish per pound, and days in pond. For analysis, fish species were divided into groups: those that </p><p>were stocked in ponds after hatching and those raised from brood stock. Fish species stocked </p><p>after hatching were channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), hybrid bass (Morone chrysops x </p><p>saxatilis), muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), sauger (Sander canadensis), striped bass (Morone </p><p>saxatilis), and walleye (Sander vitreus). The fish that were raised from brood stock were black </p><p>nose crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), blue gill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass </p><p>(Micropterus salmoides), small mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and white crappie </p><p>(Pomoxis annularis). SAS and Excel were used to conduct regression analyses, stepwise </p><p>multiple regressions, and chi-squared analyses to determine if there were significant </p><p>relationships among production variables. Although 11 species were produced at Eagle Bend, </p><p>only six species had enough data for multiple regression analysis: sauger, striped bass, walleye, </p><p>black nose crappie, bluegill, and largemouth bass. </p><p>Chi-squared analyses for hybrid bass, muskellunge, sauger, striped bass, and walleye </p><p>indicated that the number of fish stocked was dependent on the year. The number of fish per </p><p>pound was also dependent on the year. Chi-squared analyses also indicated that the proportion </p></li><li><p>iv </p><p>of fish that died for each fish species was related to year. There was also a significant (p &lt; 0.05) </p><p>relationship between mortality rates and fish species within each year. </p><p>Stepwise multiple regressions for striped bass indicated that percent mortality depended, </p><p>in part, on stocking rate and number of fish per pound. Increased stocking rate lead to increased </p><p>mortality, but R for the model was low (0.3970), indicating that other factors affected </p><p>mortality. There were no significant regressions for percent mortality or fish per pound in </p><p>sauger. For black nose crappie, stepwise regression analysis for fish per pound indicated that </p><p>the partial regression coefficient for days in pond was significant (p &lt; 0.10), but the overall </p><p>model R was very low (0.07). There were no significant stepwise regressions for blue gill or </p><p>largemouth bass. Stepwise multiple regressions for striped bass indicated that fish per pound </p><p>depended, in part, on stocking rate and mortality. Increased stocking rate led to a decrease in </p><p>the number of fish per pound. For walleye, stepwise multiple regressions indicated that percent </p><p>mortality depended, in part, on days in pond. </p><p>Although regression analyses for percent mortality of fingerlings indicated that stocking </p><p>rate was a factor for striped bass, R values were low and other factors were likely more </p><p>important. Stocking rate was not included in stepwise regressions models for other species, </p><p>indicating that the stocking rates used at Eagle Bend Hatchery are within established rates for </p><p>maximizing production. Low R values for all regression models indicated that other factors are </p><p>important in mortality and fish size. Such factors likely include dissolved oxygen levels and </p><p>water temperature, which were not available in this study. Continued monitoring of these and </p><p>other factors would help to improve productivity and survival of fingerlings produced at Eagle </p><p>Bend Hatchery and at other hatcheries in Tennessee. </p></li><li><p>v </p><p>TABLE OF CONTENTS </p><p>Page </p><p>Chapter 1 Introduction....................................................................................................................1 </p><p> Tennessee Fish Hatcheries .......................................................................................................1 </p><p> Erwin National Fish Hatchery ...........................................................................................2 </p><p> Buffalo Springs Hatchery ..................................................................................................3 </p><p> Eagle Bend Fish Hatchery .................................................................................................4 </p><p> Morristown Fish Hatchery .................................................................................................5 </p><p> Hatchery Employment .............................................................................................................5 </p><p> Research Objectives .................................................................................................................5 </p><p>Chapter 2 Literature Review ..........................................................................................................7 </p><p> Fish Species ..............................................................................................................................7 </p><p> Channel Catfish .................................................................................................................7 </p><p> Hybrid Bass .......................................................................................................................7 </p><p> Muskellunge ......................................................................................................................8 </p><p> Sauger ................................................................................................................................8 </p><p> Striped Bass .......................................................................................................................8 </p><p> Walleye ..............................................................................................................................9 </p><p> Black Nose Crappie ...........................................................................................................9 </p><p> Bluegill ..............................................................................................................................9 </p><p> Largemouth Bass .............................................................................................................10 </p><p> Small Mouth Bass ............................................................................................................10 </p><p> White Crappie ..................................................................................................................10 </p></li><li><p>vi </p><p> Early History of Fish Hatcheries ............................................................................................11 </p><p> Building and Operating a Fish Hatchery ...............................................................................11 </p><p> Management and Culture Conditions for Fish Hatcheries ....................................................13 </p><p> Largemouth Bass Pond Culture .......................................................................................13 </p><p> Striped Bass Pond Culture ..............................................................................................14 </p><p> Hybrid Bass Production ..................................................................................................15 </p><p> Walleye Pond Culture ..................................................................................................... 16 </p><p> Catfish Hatcheries ..........................................................................................................18 </p><p> Hatchery Species Survival Rates ....................................................................................19 </p><p> New Production Methods for Fish Hatcheries ........................................................................19 </p><p> Predation of Hatchery Fish by Birds .....................................................................................20 </p><p> Prevention and Bird Control ............................................................................................21 </p><p> Interaction between Hatchery Fish and Wild Fish .................................................................22 </p><p> Are Hatcheries for Endangered Fish Species the Right Answer? .........................................24 </p><p>Chapter 3 Materials and Methods ................................................................................................30 </p><p> Data Summary and Analysis ................................................................................................. 31 </p><p>Chapter 4 Results..........................................................................................................................33 </p><p> Overview of Fish Production in Morristown Warm Water Hatcheries ................................ 33 </p><p> Analysis of Production at Eagle Bend Hatchery............................................... .....................33 </p><p> Fish Species Stocked after Hatching ...............................................................................33 </p><p> Fish Species Raised from Brood Stock ...........................................................................37 </p><p>Chapter 5 Discussion ................................................................................................................... 52 </p><p>Chapter 6 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................55 </p></li><li><p>vii </p><p>References .....................................................................................................................................57 </p><p>Appendix A Summary of Fish Production at Morristown Fish Hatchery ....................................59 </p><p>Appendix B Data Summary for Eagle Bend Fish Hatchery .........................................................61 </p><p>Appendix C Summary of Multiple Regression Analyses for Fish Stocked after Hatching .........64 </p><p>Appendix D Summary of Multiple Regression Analyses for Fish Raised from Brood Stock......66 </p></li><li><p>viii </p><p>LIST OF TABLES </p><p>Page </p><p>Table 1. Comparison of P-values from chi-squared analysis to determine relationships among fish species, amount produced, and year ...........................................................................40 Table 2. Results of multiple regression for percent mortality of fish species stocked in ponds after hatching .....................................................................................................46 Table 3. Results of multiple regression for fish per pound of fish species stocked in ponds after hatching ...................................................................................................................46 Table 4. Results of stepwise multiple regression analysis for percent mortality and number of fish per pound in striped bass ......................................................................................47 Table 5. Results of stepwise multiple regression analysis for percent mortality and number of fish per pound in walleye .............................................................................................47 Table 6. Results of multiple regression for fish per pound of fish species raised from brood stock .................................................................................................................51 Table 7. Results of stepwise multiple regression analysis for fish per pound of black nose crappie .................................................................................................................... 51 </p></li><li><p>ix </p><p>LIST OF FIGURES </p><p>Page </p><p>Figure 1. Channel catfish are found throughout the southeastern United States, and are found in warm water rivers, streams, lakes, and reservoirs .....................................................26 Figure 2. Hybrid bass is a hybrid between white bass and striped bass ........................................26 Figure 3. Muskellunge are aggressive and can be cannibalistic ....................................................26 Figure 4. Sauger live in large rivers and shallow lakes in cool to warm water .............................27 Figure 5. Striped bass are very popular in the United States and are found all along the east coast ..................................................................................................................................27 Figure 6. Walleye are found in rough, murky lakes and can see well in low light ........................27 Figure 7. Black nose crappie have a black stripe on their nose from a genetic alteration of the black crappie species ...........................................................................................................28 Figure 8. Bluegill live in ponds, lakes, and slow-moving streams ................................................28 Figure 9. Largemouth bass are native to Tennessee ......................................................................28 Figure 10. Small mouth bass are cool water fish living in lakes, reservoirs, streams, or rivers. ...........................................................................................................................29 Figure 11. White crappie are warm water fish that live in rivers and lakes ..................................29 </p><p>Figure 12. Total number of fish harvested per year for each species at the Morristown Fish Hatchery in Morristown, TN ..............................</p></li></ul>

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