Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder DEFINITION: The essential feature of Attention- Deficit/ Hyperactivity

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  • Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder DEFINITION:The essential feature of Attention- Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequently displayed and severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development. (APA 2000)

  • PrevalenceApproximately 3 to 7 % of school aged children have AD/HDIdentification increasing dramaticallyRatio of boys to girls is 9 to 3DSM- IV 55% combination type, 27% inattentive type, 18% hyperactive-impulsive typeVast majority are European American

  • CharacteristicsThree Subtypes:Predominantly Inattentive TypePredominantly Hyperactive- Impulsive TypeCombined Type

  • AD/HD Subtypes CharacteristicsPredominantly Inattentive TypeHave trouble paying attention in classAre often forgetfulEasily distractedAppear lethargic, apathetic, or hypoactiveInternally rather than externally focusedSymptoms may appear later in theses students (8-12 yrs)

    Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive TypeCan not seem to sit stillOften talk excessivelyHave difficulty playing quietlyHave more difficulty with bedwetting, sleep problems,Stubbornness, and temper tantrumsCombined TypeHave features of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity85 percent of students with AD/HD fall into this category

  • Myths About CausesResearch has discounted many environmental explanations including myths such as: too much or too little sugar, aspartame, food sensitivity, food additives, lack of vitamins, television, video games, yeast, lightning, fluorescent lighting and allergies

  • CausesBiological Explanations:Certain teratogens increase the likelihood that a child will develop AD/HD (such as maternal smoking and alcohol or drug abuse, poor nutrition, and the mothers exposure to chemicals, as well as blood pressure, age, and length of pregnancy)Postnatal trauma such as brain injuries, infections, iron deficiency, and exposure to chemical poisons also increase the probability that a child will develop AD/HDBrain research is also now revealing that AD/HD appears to be a result from failure in the part of the brain controlling inhibition and self controlResearchers believe 80% of differences between students with and without AD/HD have a genetic explaination

  • Strategies for Teaching Students with AD/HDClassroom setupSeat students in rows not tablesKeep student away from distracting areas such as windows, doors, and pencil sharpeners, also away from teachers desk if students will be coming up to it to ask questionsAvoid using distracting bulletin boards or mobilesThe teacher should place themselves in an area where all students can make eye contactAn area where medication can be taken discretely may also be a necessity

  • Individual WorkHighlight important areas such as directions, color attracts attentionEmphasize quality of work not quantity to increase motivation and concentration rather than rushingKeep individual work periods short for elementary, no longer than 15 to 20 minutes followed by a break

  • Teaching InstructionIncorporate all three types of learning including auditory visual and kinesthetic methodsUse varied and interesting tasksVary tone and inflictionUse a secret signal with students who blurt out questionsAllow for extra time to assist students with AD/HD

  • VideoKeeping Kids Healthy: How to cope with ADHD


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