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Baroque Art in Europe - PCD · PDF fileBaroque Art in Europe. Europe in the 17th Century. Baroque: The Ornate Age • Baroque Art (1600-1750) succeeded in marrying the advance techniques

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  • Baroque Art in Europe

  • Europe in the 17th Century

  • Baroque: The Ornate Age

    • Baroque Art (1600-1750) succeeded in marrying the advance techniques and grand scale of the Renaissance to the emotion, intensity and drama of Mannerism.

    • Baroque art was the most ornate and sumptuous in the history of art.

    • While the term Baroque is often used negatively to mean over done and ostentatious, the 17th century not only produced such artistic geniuses as Rembrandt and Velasquez, but expanded the role of art into everyday life.

    • Artists now called Baroque came from all over Europe to Rome to study the masterpieces of Classical antiquity and the High Renaissance then returned home to interpret what they had learned in their own unique way.

  • Baroque: The Style • Baroque styles varied widely, ranging from Italian realism to French

    flamboyance.

    • However, the common element throughout Baroque art was the

    sensitivity to and the absolute mastery of Light in order to achieve

    maximum impact.

    • The Baroque era began in Rome around 1600 with Catholic popes financing

    magnificent cathedrals to display the triumph of their faith over the

    Protestant Reformation.

    • From there., it traveled to France where absolute monarchs ruled by divine

    right and spent amounts comparable to the pharaohs of Egypt to glorify

    themselves.

    • In Catholic countries, like Flanders, religious art flourished, while in

    the Protestant lands of northern Europe, religious imagery was

    forbidden.

    • As a result art tended to be still life, portraits, landscapes and scenes from

    everyday life.

  • • Louis XIV

    • Rigaud

    • 1701

    • Oil on canvas

    • C. 9’X7’

    • Louvre

  • The Baroque in Italy

    Painting and Architecture

    Caravaggio

    Gentileschi

    Bernini

    Boromini

  • Baroque Art in Italy • Artists in Rome pioneered the Baroque

    style before it spread to the rest of Europe.

    • Art academies had been established in Rome to train artists in the various techniques developed during the Renaissance.

    • Artists could expertly represent the human body from any angle, portray the most complex perspective and realistically reproduce almost anything.

    • Italian Baroque art differs from Renaissance art with its emphasis on emotion rather than rationality, on dynamic rather than static compositions.

    • The most striking difference between Italian Baroque and Renaissance painting was the use of light to dramatize a composition.

  • Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio

  • Caravaggio 1571-1610

    • He was the first great

    representative of the

    Baroque style.

    • Within his lifetime,

    Caravaggio was

    considered enigmatic,

    fascinating, a rebel, and

    dangerous.

    • He burst upon the Rome

    art scene in 1600, and

    thereafter never lacked

    for commissions or

    patrons, yet handled his

    success atrociously.

  • • An early published notice on him, dating

    from 1604 and describing his lifestyle

    some three years previously, tells how:

    • "after a fortnight's work he will swagger

    about for a month or two with a sword at

    his side and a servant following him, from

    one ball-court to the next, ever ready to

    engage in a fight or an argument, so that it

    is most awkward to get along with him.”

    • In 1606 he killed a young man in a brawl

    and fled from Rome with a price on his

    head.

    • In Malta in 1608 he was involved in

    another brawl, and yet another in Naples

    in 1609, possibly a deliberate attempt on

    his life by unidentified enemies.

    • By the next year, after a career of little

    more than a decade, he was dead.

  • • Huge new churches and palaces were being built

    in Rome in the decades of the late 16th and early

    17th centuries, and paintings were needed to fill

    them.

    • The Counter-Reformation Church searched for

    authentic religious art with which to counter the

    threat of Protestantism, and for this task the

    artificial conventions of Mannerism, which had

    ruled art for almost a century, no longer seemed

    adequate.

    • Caravaggio's novelty was a radical naturalism

    which combined close physical observation with

    a dramatic, even theatrical, approach to

    chiaroscuro, the use of light and shadow. In

    Caravaggio's hands this new style was the vehicle

    for authentic and moving spirituality.

    • Famous and extremely influential while he lived,

    Caravaggio was almost entirely forgotten in the

    centuries after his death, and it was only in the

    20th century that his importance to the

    development of Western art was rediscovered. Chalk portrait of Caravaggio

    by Ottavio Leoni,

  • • Boy with a Basket of

    Fruit

    • c. 1593

    • Oil on canvas

    • 70 x 67cm

    • Galleria Borghese

    Rome

  • • The Fortune Teller, 1596-97, Oil on canvas

    • 99 x 131cm, Louvre, Paris

  • • The Cardsharps, c. 1594, Oil on canvas

    • 94 131 cm, Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth

  • • Judith Beheading Holofernes, c. 1598, Oil on canvas

    • 58 x 78 inches, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome

  • • Narcissus

    • 1598-99

    • Oil on canvas

    • 110 x 92 cm

    • Galleria Nazionale d'Arte

    Antica, Rome

  • • The Calling of Saint Matthew, 1599-1600, Oil on canvas

    • C. 10 x 11 feet, Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome

  • • The Martyrdom of St

    Matthew

    • 1599-1600

    • Oil on canvas

    • 323 x 343 cm

    • Contarelli Chapel

    • San Luigi dei Francesi

    Rome

  • • St. John the Baptist

    (Youth with Ram)

    • c. 1600

    • Oil on canvas

    • 129 x 94 cm

    • Musei Capitolini,

    Rome

  • • David

    • 1600

    • Oil on canvas,

    • 110 x 91 cm

  • • The Incredulity of Saint Thomas, 1601-02, Oil on canvas

    • 107 x 146 cm, Sanssouci, Potsdam

  • • Supper at Emmaus, 1601-02, Oil on canvas

    • 139 x 195 cm, National Gallery, London

  • • Conversion of St Paul

    • 1601

    • The painting records the

    moment when Saul of Tarsus,

    on his way to Damascus to

    annihilate the Christian

    community there, is struck

    blind by a brilliant light and

    hears the voice of Christ

    saying, "Saul, Saul, why

    persecutest thou me?...And

    they that were with me saw

    indeed the light, and were

    afraid, but they heard not the

    voice..." (Acts 22:6-11).

  • • The Crucifixion of

    Saint Peter

    • 1600

    • Oil on canvas

    • 230 x 175 cm

    • Cerasi Chapel

    • Santa Maria del Popolo

    • Rome

    • This painting was

    commissioned at the

    same time as the

    Conversion of St. Paul,

    by Cardinal Cerasi.

  • • Entombment

    • 1603-04

    • Oil on canvas

    • c. 10x7 feet

    • Vatican Museum

    • One of many paintings confiscated from Roman churches and taken to Paris during Napoleon's occupation of Italy in 1798.

    • It was one of the few paintings returned to Italy in 1815.

  • • Madonna di Loreto

    • 1603-05

    • Oil on canvas

    • 260 x 150 cm

    • S. Agostino, Rome

    • Caravaggio often used

    everyday people as

    models for his paintings.

  • • Death of the Virgin

    • 1606

    • Oil on canvas

    • 369 245 cm

    • Louvre, Paris

  • • Flagellation

    • c. 1607

    • Oil on canvas

    • 390 x 260 cm

    • Museo Nazionale di

    Capodimonte

    • Naples

  • • Beheading of Saint John the Baptist

    • 1608, Oil on canvas, 361 x 520 cm, Saint John Museum, La Valletta

  • • The Raising of Lazarus

    • 1608-09

    • Oil on canvas

    • 380 x 275 cm

    • Museo Nazionale, Messina

    • Some critics claimed that

    Caravaggio used an actual

    corpse as a model for the

    figure of Lazarus.

  • • Burial of St Lucy

    • 1608

    • Oil on canvas

    • 408 x 300cm

    • Bellamo Museum,

    Syracuse

  • • Salome with the Head of the Baptist

    • c. 1609, Oil on canvas, 116 x 140 cm, Palazzo Real, Madrid

  • • David

    • 1609-10

    • Oil on canvas

    • 125 x 101 cm

    • Galleria Borghese

    • Rome

  • David 1600 David 1610

  • • Caravaggio’s fame scarcely survived his death.

    • His innovations inspired the Baroque, but the

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