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  • Blackwell Companions to Philosophy

    A Companion to Philosophy in the

    Middle Ages

    Edited by

    . .



  • A Companion to Philosophy in theMiddle Ages

  • Blackwell Companions to Philosophy

    This outstanding student reference series offers a comprehensive and authoritative surveyof philosophy as a whole. Written by todays leading philosophers, each volume provideslucid and engaging coverage of the key figures, terms, topics, and problems of the field.Taken together, the volumes provide the ideal basis for course use, representing an unparalleled work of reference for students and specialists alike.

    Already published in the series:

    1. The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy(Second edition)Edited by Nicholas Bunnin and Eric Tsui-James

    2. A Companion to EthicsEdited by Peter Singer

    3. A Companion to AestheticsEdited by David Cooper

    4. A Companion to EpistemologyEdited by Jonathan Dancy and Ernest Sosa

    5. A Companion to Contemporary PoliticalPhilosophyEdited by Robert E. Goodin and Philip Pettit

    6. A Companion to Philosophy of MindEdited by Samuel Guttenplan

    7. A Companion to MetaphysicsEdited by Jaegwon Kim and Ernest Sosa

    8. A Companion to Philosophy of Law andLegal TheoryEdited by Dennis Patterson

    9. A Companion to Philosophy of ReligionEdited by Philip L. Quinn and Charles Taliaferro

    10. A Companion to the Philosophy ofLanguageEdited by Bob Hale and Crispin Wright

    11. A Companion to World PhilosophiesEdited by Eliot Deutsch and Ron Bontekoe

    12. A Companion to Continental PhilosophyEdited by Simon Critchley and William Schroeder

    13. A Companion to Feminist PhilosophyEdited by Alison M. Jaggar and Iris Marion Young

    14. A Companion to Cognitive ScienceEdited by William Bechtel and George Graham

    15. A Companion to BioethicsEdited by Helga Kuhse and Peter Singer

    16. A Companion to the PhilosophersEdited by Robert L. Arrington

    17. A Companion to Business EthicsEdited by Robert E. Frederick

    18. A Companion to the Philosophy ofScienceEdited by W. H. Newton-Smith

    19. A Companion to Environmental PhilosophyEdited by Dale Jamieson

    20. A Companion to Analytic PhilosophyEdited by A. P. Martinich and David Sosa

    21. A Companion to GenethicsEdited by Justine Burley and John Harris

    22. A Companion to Philosophical LogicEdited by Dale Jacquette

    23. A Companion to Early Modern PhilosophyEdited by Steven Nadler

    24. A Companion to Philosophy in theMiddle AgesEdited by Jorge J. E. Gracia and Timothy B. Noone

    25. A Companion to African American PhilosophyEdited by Tommy L. Lott and John P. Pittman

    26. A Companion to Applied EthicsEdited by R. G. Frey and Christopher Heath Wellman

    27. A Companion to the Philosophy ofEducationEdited by Randall Curren

  • Blackwell Companions to Philosophy

    A Companion to Philosophy in the

    Middle Ages

    Edited by

    . .



  • 2002 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd

    350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5018, USA108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK550 Swanston Street, Carlton South, Melbourne, Victoria 3053, AustraliaKurfrstendamm 57, 10707 Berlin, Germany

    The right of Jorge J. E. Gracia and Timothy B. Noone to be identified as the Authors of the Editorial Material in this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs,and Patents Act 1988.

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, ortransmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or other-wise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the priorpermission of the publisher.

    First published 2002 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    A companion to philosophy in the middle ages / edited by Jorge J. E. Gracia and Timothy B.Noone.

    p. cm. (Blackwell companions to philosophy; 24)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-631-21672-3 (alk. paper)1. Philosophy, Medieval. I. Gracia, Jorge J. E. II. Noone, Timothy B. III. Series.

    B721 .C54 2002189dc21


    A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library.

    Set in 10/12 Ehrhardtby SNP Best-set Typesetter Ltd, Hong KongPrinted and bound in the United Kingdomby T. J. International, Padstow, Cornwall

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  • v


    List of Contributors xiiPreface xvChronological List xviii

    Philosophy in the Middle Ages: An Introduction 1Jorge J. E. Gracia

    PART I: THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT1 The Ancient Philosophical Legacy and its Transmission to the

    Middle Ages 15Charles H. Lohr

    2 The Patristic Background 23Stephen F. Brown

    3 Philosophy in the Latin Christian West: 7501050 32Peter King

    4 The School of Chartres 36Winthrop Wetherbee

    5 Religious Orders 45M. Michle Mulchahey and Timothy B. Noone

    6 Scholasticism 55Timothy B. Noone

    7 The Parisian Condemnations of 1270 and 1277 65John F. Wippel

    PART II: THE AUTHORS1 Adam of Wodeham 77

    Rega Wood2 Adelard of Bath 86

    Jeremiah Hackett3 Alan of Lille 88

    John Marenbon4 Albert of Saxony 90

    Edward Grant

  • 5 Albertus Magnus 92Mechthild Dreyer

    6 Albumasar (Abu Mashar) 102Jeremiah Hackett

    7 Alexander of Hales 104Christopher M. Cullen

    8 Alfarabi (Al-Farab) 109Deborah L. Black

    9 Algazali (Al-Ghazal) 118Thrse-Anne Druart

    10 Alhacen (Al-Hasan) 127David C. Lindberg

    11 Alkindi (Al-Kindi) 129Jean Jolivet

    12 Alrazi (Al-Raz) 136Thrse-Anne Druart

    13 Anselm of Canterbury 138Jasper Hopkins

    14 Arnaldus of Villanova 152Francisco Bertelloni

    15 Augustine 154Scott MacDonald

    16 Avempace (Ibn Bjjah) 172Idris Samawi Hamid

    17 Avencebrol (Ibn Gabirol) 174Tamar Rudavsky

    18 Averroes (Ibn Rushd) 182Richard C. Taylor

    19 Avicenna (Ibn Sna) 196David B. Burrell

    20 Bernard of Clairvaux 209Brian Patrick McGuire

    21 Berthold of Moosburg 215Bruce Milem

    22 Boethius 217John Magee

    23 Boethius of Dacia 227B. Carlos Bazn

    24 Bonaventure 233Andreas Speer

    25 Dante Alighieri 241Timothy B. Noone

    26 Denys the Carthusian 243Kent Emery, Jr.

    27 Dietrich of Freiberg 245Roland J. Teske

    28 Dominicus Gundissalinus 247R. E. Houser


  • 29 Durand of St. Pourain 249Russell L. Friedman

    30 Francis of Marchia 254Russell L. Friedman

    31 Francis of Meyronnes 256Roberto Lambertini

    32 Gabriel Biel 258Russell L. Friedman

    33 Gaetano of Thiene 260Stephen E. Lahey

    34 Gersonides 262Sarah Pessin

    35 Gilbert of Poitiers 264John Marenbon

    36 Giles of Rome 266Silvia Donati

    37 Godfrey of Fontaines 272John F. Wippel

    38 Gonsalvo of Spain 281A. G. Traver

    39 Gregory of Rimini 283Jack Zupko

    40 Guido Terrena 291Francisco Bertelloni

    41 Hasdai Crescas 293Tamar Rudavsky

    42 Henry of Ghent 296R. Wielockx

    43 Henry of Harclay 305Mark G. Henninger

    44 Hervaeus Natalis 314Roland J. Teske

    45 Heymeric of Camp 316Peter J. Casarella

    46 Hildegard of Bingen 318Bruce Milem

    47 Hugh of St. Victor 320Michael Gorman

    48 Isaac Israeli 326Sarah Pessin

    49 Isidore of Seville 328Sandro DOnofrio

    50 James of Metz 330Russell L. Friedman

    51 James of Viterbo 332Mark D. Gossiaux

    52 Jean de la Rochelle 334Grard Sondag


  • 53 Jerome of Prague 336Jonathan J. Sanford

    54 John Baconthorpe 338Richard Cross

    55 John Buridan 340Gyula Klima

    56 John Capreolus 349Kevin White

    57 John Dumbleton 351Edith Dudley Sylla

    58 John Duns Scotus 353Stephen D. Dumont

    59 John Gerson 370James B. South

    60 John of Jandun 372James B. South

    61 John of Mirecourt 377Mauricio Beuchot

    62 John of Paris 382Russell L. Friedman

    63 John Pecham 384Girard J. Etzkorn

    64 John Philoponus 388James B. South

    65 John of Reading 390Kimberly Georgedes

    66 John of Salisbury 392C. H. Kneepkens

    67 John Scotus Eriugena 397Carlos Steel and D. W. Hadley

    68 John Wyclif 407John D. Kronen

    69 Landulph Caracciolo 409Christopher Schabel

    70 Marsilius of Inghen 411Maarten J. F. M. Hoenen

    71 Marsilius of Padua 413Francisco Bertelloni

    72 Martin of Dacia 421Jos Luis Rivera

    73 Matthew of Aquasparta 423R. E. Houser

    74 Maximus Confessor 432Eric D. Perl

    75 Meister Eckhart 434Jan A. Aertsen

    76 Michael of Massa 443Christopher Schabel


  • 77 Moses Maimonides 445Alfred L. Ivry

    78 Nicholas of Autrecourt 458Mauricio Beuchot

    79 Nicholas of Cusa 466Louis Dupr and Nancy Hudson

    80 Nicole Oresme 475Edward Grant

    81 Paul of Pergula 481Stephen E. Lahey

    82 Paul of Venice 483Alan Perreiah

    83 Peter Abelard 485John Marenbon

    84 Peter Auriol 494Lauge Olaf Nielsen

    85 Peter of Auvergne 504Robert Andrews

    86 Peter of Candia 506Christopher Schabel

    87 Peter Ceffons 508Christopher Schabel

    88 Peter Damian 510Jonathan J. Sanford

    89 Peter Helias 512C. H. Kneepkens

    90 Peter Lombard 514Philipp W. Rosemann

    91 Peter Olivi 516Franois-Xavier Putallaz

    92 Peter de Rivo 524Christopher Schabel

    93 Peter of Spain 526Gyula Klima

    94 Peter the Venerable 532Jonathan J. Sanford

    95 Philip the Chancellor 534R. E. Houser

    96 Pierre dAilly 536Richard A. Lee, Jr.

    97 Pierre de Maricourt 538Jos Luis Rivera

    98 Pseudo-Dionysius 540Eric D. Perl

    99 Radulphus Brito 550Gordon A. Wilson

    100 Ralph Strode 552Kimberly Georgedes