Blueprint for Teaching and Learning in Visual Arts

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  • Grades PreK - 12

    For Teaching and Learning in

    New York City Department of Education

  • Carmen Faria, ChancellorDorita Gibson, Senior Deputy ChancellorPhil Weinberg, Deputy Chancellor of Teaching and LearningAnna Commitante, Senior Executive Director, Curriculum, Instruction & Professional LearningPaul King, Executive Director, Office of Arts and Special Projects

    Third Edition, 2015Blueprint Curriculum Development Planning ChairKaren Rosner, Coordinator of Visual Arts,Office of Arts and Special ProjectsNew York City Department of Education

    AdvisorThomas Cahill, President & CEOStudio in a School

    Contributors:New York City Department of EducationVisual Arts Educators

    Strand 1 ContentMaria BonillaSusan Handwerkerbeth helfant-goldmanKatherine HualaBarbara Rudnick

    Students with Disabilities ContentKathy London

    Technology ContentKen GrebinarMartina HookerIrene PapamichaelNoah Schumacher

    Department of English Language Learners and Student SupportMariza CerffMaria FriedlandRachel HoffStela RadovanovicJill Schimmel

    University CommunityDr. Marie Alcock, President, Learning Systems Associates Dr. Heidi Andrade, University of Albany

    Second Edition, 2007 Blueprint Curriculum Development Planning Co-ChairsBarbara Gurr, Director of Visual Arts,Office of Arts and Special Projects,New York City Department of EducationThomas Cahill, President & CEO, Studio in a School

    Contributors:New York City Department of Education Doris CorderoBlase DeCelestinoMaria V. DiazLaurel DanowitzSusan HandwerkerRonald KlokkeLisa KnoxTamar LaksStephen J. LaskyKatherine LondonValerie LouzonisJeanmarie MartocciNia MasonEdward MorganoAntonella NataleMaria PalmaAnn RosenKaren RosnerMarcia SherritonSusan StrandeJanet VelasquezEllen WongGeorge York

    Cultural and University CommunityMelanie Adsit, Whitney Museum of American ArtNancy Blume, Asia Society and MuseumWilliam Crow, Metropolitan Museum of ArtMike Deetsch, Brooklyn MuseumAriel Feinberg, Jewish MuseumKate Fermoile, Brooklyn Historical SocietyMayrav Fisher, Guggenheim Museum of ArtSara Guerrero-Rippberger, Queens Museum of ArtJessica Hamlin, Art21Joanna Hefferen, ArtsConnectionAline Hill-Ries, Studio in a SchoolLisa Mazzola, Museum of Modern ArtSusan McCullough, Museum of Modern ArtBarbara Palley, Brooklyn MuseumCaroline Payson, Cooper-Hewitt National Design MuseumDonnielle Rome, Queens Museum of ArtLauren Schloss, Queens Museum of ArtAlice Schwarz, Metropolitan Museum of ArtAmy Brook Snider, Pratt InstituteSharon Vatsky, Guggenheim Museum of ArtHelena Vidal, El Museo del BarrioRose Viggiano, School of Visual ArtsJohn Welch, Metropolitan Museum of ArtAndrea Zakin, Lehman College, CUNY

    First Edition, 2004 Blueprint Curriculum Development Planning Co-ChairsBarbara Gurr, Director of Visual Arts,Office of Arts and Special Projects,New York City Department of EducationThomas Cahill, President & CEO, Studio in a School

    Contributors:New York City Department of EducationMadeleine AppellDoris CorderoLaurel DanowitzPaul KaplanNaomi LonerganEdward MorganoKaren RosnerNancy ShankmanGeorge York

    Cultural and University CommunityRikki Asher, Queens College, CUNYKaia Calhoun, Center for Arts EducationJoanne Bernstein-Cohen, Young Audiences, New YorkJudith Burton, Teachers College, Columbia UniversityThomas Cabiness, New York PhilharmonicDiana Cagle, Bank Street CollegeRenee Darvin, Teachers College, Columbia UniversityJoan Davidson, New York City Association of Teachers of Art/UFTDipti Desai, New York UniversityDavid Elliott, New York UniversitySusan Fleminger, Henry Street SettlementHollis Headrick, Carnegie HallSandra Jackson, Studio Museum in HarlemSusana Torruella Leval, Director Emerita, El Museo del BarrioLinda Louis, Brooklyn College, CUNYStacy Miller, Parsons School of DesignCarol Morgan, ArtsConnectionScott Noppe-Brandon, Lincoln Center InstituteJane Remer, ConsultantJerrold Ross, St. Johns UniversityLauren Schloss, Queens Museum of ArtDeborah Schwartz, Museum of Modern ArtAmy Brook Snider, Pratt InstituteSteve Tennen, ArtsConnectionRose Viggiano, School of Visual ArtsRandolph Williams, Metropolitan Museum of Art; Manhattanville College

    C o n t r i b u t o r s

    ii n Blueprint for the Arts n Visual Arts

  • iiiBlueprint for the Arts n Visual Arts n

    The 2015 revised editions of the Blueprints for Teaching and Learning in the Arts continue to define a pathway for excellence and engagement in the arts for all students beginning in early childhood and continuing to a commencement level of achievement in dance, music, theater and visual arts. The Blueprints provide a standards-based rigorous approach for teaching the arts while assuring that parent and communities are engaged and that all students have access to the rich and essential learning that happens with our arts and cultural organizations.

    Our Blueprints give New York Citys students the opportunity to delve deeply into these subjects, while providing our arts teachers with the flexibility to create an instructional plan that builds on students prior knowledge, honors their cultural traditions and, most importantly, demonstrates growth in student arts learning over time. This scheme for arts learning encourages diverse instruction through various media, repertoire, genres and styles providing our students with a wide range of learning experiences in and out of school.

    We know that the sequential study of dance, music, theater and visual arts will help students attain vocations in the arts and will nurture an interest in the arts. Students sequential and ongoing arts learning makes them college and career ready enabling them to apply for advanced study or for jobs in the arts-related industries that are essential to the economy of New York City. More importantly, this learning offers students a source of lifelong enjoyment as they become the future audience and patrons of the arts.

    With this revised edition of the Blueprints, we are seeking to keep this resource relevant and useful. With that mandate in mind, this version includes documents to address arts instruction in PreK settings, for students with disabilities, and for our English language learners. The Blueprints also provide guidance for aligning the arts and the Common Core as well as the Specific Considerations in the Arts for arts studio practice and observations. With revised bibliographies, assessment guidance and other additional resources, we are confident that the Blueprints will remain an essential tool for New York City arts teachers.

    The original Blueprints from a decade ago were the result of an exceptional collaboration between educators from the DOE and our diverse partners from the arts and cultural community of New York City. We remain grateful to our partners and for the opportunities that they provide for students and teachers to go beyond the classroom for arts learning. We share their commitment as demonstrated in the Blueprints to encourage students, teachers, school leaders and parents to take advantage of the rich arts and cultural experiences available in museums, concert halls, galleries, performance spaces, and theaters all over our city.

    We are pleased to provide New York City schools with this essential tool for teaching and learning in the arts which has become a national model for quality arts education. And we look forward to continued and expanded success in providing equity and access in the arts for all New York City students.

    Carmen Faria, Chancellor

    Carmen Faria, ChancellorNew York City Department of Education

    L e t t e r f r o m t h e C h a n c e l l o r

  • iv n Blueprint for the Arts n Visual Arts

    A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s

    We are pleased to present the third edition of the Blueprint for Teaching and Learning in Visual Arts. This edition has new components, updated versions of existing ones, and a reconfiguration of Strand 1: Art Making. It reflects the continuing commitment of the Office of Arts and Special Projects to provide high-quality, sequential visual arts education for all New York City public school students.

    The new components are:

    n Visual Arts and Pre-Kindergarten Studentsn Visual Arts and Curriculum Planningn Specific Considerations for Teachers of Visual Artsn Visual Arts and the Common Core Learning Standardsn Informational Text in the Art Class: Art as Text/Text About Art n Discussion and Questioning in the Art Classn Visual Arts and Family Engagement

    Included are new versions of Visual Arts and English Language Learners, created by the Department of English Language Learners and Student Support, and Visual Arts and Students with Disabilities. The Assessment component has been updated to reflect new information, as have the other components created by the Office of Arts and Special Projects.

    Of special note are changes made to Strand 1: Art Making. Benchmark grades have detailed, scaffolded performance indicators directed toward specific skills. There is an expanded list of suggested themes and genres, and lists of artists which teachers may reference to address specific performance indicators for each medium, at every benchmark grade. Links to all artists referenced in Strand 1 are included in a new webography at the end of the Blueprint. In addition, Strands 2 through 5 have been revised and updated.

    We express gratitude to all who have contributed to this third edition of the Visual Arts Blueprint. Each has worked with dedication and a true spirit of collegiality to create a rich resource for instructionone that honors the teaching of visual arts.

    For her expert leadership of the Department of Education, we offer recognition and our appreciation to Chancellor Carmen Faria, a steadfast supporter of the arts in public schools who truly understands the importance of the arts in every childs development and education.

    The Office of Arts and Special Projects is guided by an exemplary executive director, Paul King. We thank him for leading us with intelligence and dedication, and with a vision of how quality arts education should be delivered to all New York City public school students. We are grateful to Tom Cahill, President and CEO of Studio in a School, for his wise counsel, and for his creation of the document Visual Arts and Pre-Kindergarten Students. As Co-Chairs of the Blueprints first and second editions, Tom and Barbara Gurr, the former Director of Visual Arts, created a solid foundation on which to build.

    We recognize the team of visual arts educators for their contributions. This group of true professionals worked with commitment and enthusiasm. Their work on Strand 1: Art Making, Visual Arts and Students with Disabilities, and the technical components was invaluable. We thank Pam Pollack and Vanguard Direct for the creative design of this document, and Ken Priester for his keen editorial skills.

    This edition of the Visual Arts Blueprint was created along with new editions for the Dance, Music, and Theater Blueprints. Thank you to the respective OASP Directors: Ana Nery Fragoso, Barbara Murray, and Peter Avery for their collegiality, expertise, and friendship. Gratitude is extended to Amy Russo, Arts Program Manager, who works so expertly on all of our visual arts initiatives.

    Karen Rosner Coordinator of Visual Arts

  • vBlueprint for the Arts n Visual Arts n

    T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s

    Contributors. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ii

    Letter from the Chancellor.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. iii

    Acknowledgments . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. iv

    Introduction . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1

    Teaching the Arts to the Children of New York City .. 2

    Five Strands of Arts Learning. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3

    Student Development and the Visual Arts .. .. .. .. 4

    Making Art is the Starting Point .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5

    2nd Grade

    Art Making.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8Developing Art Literacy .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 10Making Connections Through Visual Arts .. .. .. .. . 11Community and Cultural Resources .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 12Exploring Careers and Lifelong Learning .. .. .. .. .. . 13

    5th Grade

    Art Making.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 16Developing Art Literacy .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 18Making Connections Through Visual Arts .. .. .. .. . 19Community and Cultural Resources .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 20Exploring Careers and Lifelong Learning .. .. .. .. .. . 21

    8th Grade

    Art Making.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 24Developing Art Literacy .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 26Making Connections Through Visual Arts .. .. .. .. . 27Community and Cultural Resources .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 28Exploring Careers and Lifelong Learning .. .. .. .. .. . 29

    12th Grade

    Art Making.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 32Developing Art Literacy .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 34Making Connections Through Visual Arts .. .. .. .. . 35Community and Cultural Resources .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 36Exploring Careers and Lifelong Learning .. .. .. .. .. . 37

    Information and Resources

    Visual Arts and Pre-Kindergarten Students .. .. .. .. .. . 39

    Visual Arts and Students with Disabilities .. .. .. .. .. . 43

    Visual Arts and English Language Learners .. .. .. .. .. . 48

    Visual Arts and Curriculum Planning .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 50

    Assessment in Visual Arts. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 56

    Specific Considerations for Teachers of Visual Arts.. .. . 61

    Visual Arts and the Common Core Learning Standards .. . 66

    Integrating the Museum into Classroom Instruction .. . 69

    Informational Text in the Art Class: Art as Text / Text About Art .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 73

    Discussion and Questioning in the Art Class. .. .. .. .. . 75

    Stocking the Art Studio . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 77

    Indicators of a Healthy Arts Program . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 80

    What the Blueprint Means for School Leaders .. .. .. .. . 81

    What the Blueprint Means for Classroom Teachers . .. . 82

    What the Blueprint Means for Families .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 83

    Visual Arts and Family Engagement .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 84

    What the Blueprint Means for the Arts Community .. . 85

    What the Blueprint Means for the University Community .. . 86

    Glossary of Art Terms .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 87

    Annotated Bibliography .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 93

    Annotated Webography .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 101

    Webography of Artists Noted in Strand 1: Art Making .. .. 106

  • 1Blueprint for the Arts n Visual Arts n

    I n t r o d u c t i o n

    Every New York City public school is capable of supporting an excellent arts program in which arts specialists are key players, the school community is actively involved, and the resources of the citys cultural community are maxim...

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