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Bodleian Social Science Library. Turning a research question into an effective search strategy Louise Clarke, Bodleian Social Science Librarian Kate Williams , Bodleian Education Librarian. PC Log-in. Enter your: University Card Barcode Enter your: Library password - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Turning a research question into an effective search strategy

Louise Clarke, Bodleian Social Science Librarian

Kate Williams, Bodleian Education LibrarianBodleian Social Science Library

1PC Log-inEnter your: University Card BarcodeEnter your: Library passwordDefault is D.O.B 20AUG1986NB: logs out after 20 minutes of inactivity

If you have not yet set up your Library password:Enter: ssltxxx (where xxx is the number of the PC) and the password S4turnPart 1: The literature review process3KeywordsBooleanPearl-growingCitation chainingPart 2: SearchingPart 3: Search tools5Part 4: Alerts6Part 5: Citations and bibliometrics Impact7By the end of the session, you should:

Understand the literature review process; Be able to plan an effective and structured search for your thesis; Know where to look for different types of information; Have evaluated different methods of searching; Have developed search skills that can be applied across different resources; Have had a chance to practise; Know where to come for future help.

Learning outcomes8Part 1: The literature review process9Literature review discussion groupsWhy is the literature review important?Why be methodical? How do you choose your search terms?Where do you plan to search for the literature?What sources are you trying to find?10Primary and Secondary SourcesPrimary SourceSuffragette posters and pamphlets

Secondary Source

Book about female emancipation in Britain

Tertiary SourceDictionary of feminism

11 In general a primary source is a work not based on or derived from another source (e.g. contemporary records, data, conference papers, photographs, working papers, etc.) Secondary sources include the use / analysis / interpretation of primary (and other) sources Consider the relationship between the researcher and the source in the context of the research topic Definitions of primary and secondary sources vary by discipline

LOMBARD, E. 2010. Primary and Secondary Sources. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36, 3, pp. 250-253. Sources12 Grey literature refers to material not easily found through conventional publishing channels Produced by government agencies, NGOs, IGOs, academic departments and research groups Includes working papers, policy documents, occasional papers, briefings, conference papers, newsletters, etc. Produced in print and electronic formats Ephemeral nature has implications for dissemination, identification and access it is out there but may be hard to find

Primary sources include grey literature13How to structure the literature review processPreliminary searching and browsingScan abstracts and skim-read papersIdentify current directions of research How will you contribute new knowledge?

Structured searching with appropriate syntaxIdentify the key articles and heavily-cited papersEstablish key authors, organizations and sourcesCommit to in-depth consideration and re-reading of papers

Develop searchTrack citations to follow research connectionsCast net more widely in terms of resources searched Set up alerts for new content

Stay focused on the research question and keep a search log14KeywordsBooleanPearl-growingCitation chainingPart 2: SearchingStart with a clear research question

16Start with a clear research questione.g.

What is being done to help prevent AIDS in Zimbabwe?

17Search method 1: Natural language searching

Search skills for your assignmentsKate Williams 18Search method 2: Keyword searching

19Example - KeywordsWhat is being done to help prevent AIDS in Zimbabwe?

AidsPrevent Zimbabwe

aids prevent(ion) Zimbabwehiv interventionhuman immunodeficiency virus awarenessacquired immune educationdeficiency syndrome

20Wild card charactersTruncation may be used in a number of ways:* for right side truncation (e.g. plurals and alternative word endings) interven* retrieves intervention(s), intervene, intervening? for a single character (e.g. alternative spellings)organi?ation for organisation or organization $ for one character or zero charactersbehavio$r retrieves behavior or behaviourCheck the database online help (the symbols given above are common but not universal)21Boolean logic

ORNOTHIV or AIDSprevention not treatment

ANDAIDS and ZimbabweNARROWSSEARCHBROADENSSEARCHNARROWSSEARCH22Further search techniquesUse parentheses to group the order in which terms are searched (or use structured search boxes)Use the proximity operator NEAR to specify how close two words appear to each otherE.g. University NEAR/4 studentsSearch for a phrase by using quote marks united kingdomLimit your search to particular fields (title, author, abstract, keywords, etc.) Apply search filters such as date to limit a search23Example Keyword search string Aids prevention in ZimbabweSearch 1 = hiv OR human immunodeficiency virus OR aids OR acquired immune deficiency syndromeSearch 2 = prevent* OR interven* OR aware* OR educat*Search 3 = ZimbabweSearch 4 = #1 AND #2 AND #3Demo - SCOPUS

24Search method 3: Database thesauriUse database thesauri and subject headings to identify new and useful search terms

Terms are assigned by the database editors from a set of controlled vocabulary (thesaurus) May also be keywords assigned by the author

Broader - brings together synonyms / related terms under one heading (sensitivity)

More focused - looks for articles about your topic, not just with your words in the article (specificity)

25 thesaurus term = Higher education

Higher EducationHigher educationCollegeUniversityTertiaryeducationHEHEI26Thesaurus example ERICAcademic AchievementUse for: Academic Performance : Academic Progress : Academic Success : Educational Achievement : Educational Level : Scholastic Achievement : Student Achievement

Narrower terms: Educational AttainmentBroader terms: Achievement Related terms: Academic Failure : Instructional Effectiveness

27Search examples - ERICSearch termFree text searchSubject headingAcademic Achievement 62,93559,970Search termFree text searchAcademic Success3,276Academic Success16,506Academic NEAR/6 Success5,44928Search method 4: Cross - searchingOxLIP+ Keyword searching of up to 5 Oxford databases Limited to certain databasesRetrieval is unwieldy

SOLO Journal Articles Search Rough and readyProduces poor results in many cases

29A note about searching for authorsUse truncation to find all forms of an authors nameTo find articles by J.R.W. Yates search for yates j* For common names, truncation may not be appropriate try entering the initials insteadyates jrw or yates j r w depending on the databaseCompound names may be fused together or separated punctuation may be replaced with a space To find articles by M. DAngelo search for dangelo m* OR dangelo m* OR d angelo m*Database tools can help you identify authorsAuthor indexAuthor search (SCOPUS) / Author finder (Web of Science) for including information about their subject and institution30Part 3: Search tools SOLO OxLIP+ OU E-Journals Libguides Single Sign On Sign into Nexus Email or SOLO My Account and use browser session to access e-journals and OxLIP+ databases from outside the Oxford network

Access to online resources provided by the Bodleian Libraries32Google Scholar Library Links

Selecting databases for a literature review

Tolan, P., Henry, D., Schoeny, M., Bass, A. & Tolan, P. 2008, "Mentoring interventions to affect juvenile delinquency and associated problems",Campbell Systematic Reviews,vol. 16.Identifying search toolsAsk yourself two questions:What subject disciplines might be pertinent to my research topic? Economics, health, public policy, education, anthropology, sociology, geography, etc.Which information formats might contain relevant research? Journal articles, discussion and working papers, books, official papers, datasets, websites, newspaper articles, etc.Next, take a look at the appropriate LibGuides

Major Platforms

Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts Dissertations and theses (full-text) British Education Index (N.B. Proquest Professional) ERIC (Education) International Bibliography of the Social Sciences Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts National Criminal Justice Reference Service Public Affairs Information Service (PAIS) Sociological Abstracts Worldwide Political Science Abstracts (WPSA)

International Bibliography of the Social Sciences

Disciplines: anthropology, cultural studies, demography, economics, education, political science, religious studies, sociology, etc. Broad coverage of international material Records indexed geographically as well as thematically

38 Dissertations and Theses The worlds most comprehensive collection of social science theses From 1997 onwards over a million full-text theses are available to download Dissertations from July 1980 onwards include a 350 word abstract Earlier dissertations offer citation information (dating back to 1637)

39 IBSS Search Syntax(ageing OR aging) NEAR/4 population OR declin* NEAR/4 (fertility OR birth)

AND (family OR social) AND polic*

AND Japan

40 EconLit Global Health




Abstracts in Social Gerontology

Business Source Complete Family & Society Studies Worldwide

Historical Abstracts

Philosophers Index