Buddhism in the Art and Aesthetics of Premodern in the Art and Aesthetics of...Shingon Buddhism • Esoteric = Mikkyo has secret teachings as opposed to Exoteric Buddhism which

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  • Buddhism in the Art and Aesthetics of Premodern Japan

    Kazuko Kameda-Madar

    Hawaii Pacific University

  • Nara Period Asuka period (552 645) Nara period (645 784)

    Heian Period (794 - 1185) Early Heian Fujiwara

    Kamakura Period (1192 1332) Muromachi period (1333 1573)

    Ashikaga Shogunate Onin Civil War (1467 1477)

    Momoyama period (1573 1605) Tokugawa (Edo) period (1573 1868)

  • KondGojunot

    Lecture Hall

    MiddleGate

    Asuka Period 552-645Horyuji Temple, Nara

  • Horyu-ji, Great South Gate

  • Horyu-ji Great South Gate, Guardian Figures

  • Horyu-ji, KondoShaka TriadBy Tori BusshiDated 623Bronze

  • Shakyamuni and Prabhutaratna, HebeiProvince, Northern Wei Dynasty, 518, Gilded bronze, Musee Guimet, Paris

    Tori Busshi, Horyuji Shaka triad, Asuka period, 623, Bronze

  • Hryuji, Yumedono

  • Kannon, Horyuji, Yumedono"Yumedono Kannon Gilt woodAsuka period, Early 7th century

  • Kudara Kannon, Horyuji KondoCirca 650 Wood with paint and gold

  • http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=aLq_NJxn95u9cM&tbnid=NCxCx24uV3JOtM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://www.craftsy.com/project/view/beetle-wings-earrings/26680&ei=U6qPU6aoI4bhoATTuILYAg&psig=AFQjCNHElP3XhZbSDv3pvcHG9kE_wl7y3g&ust=1402010476926331http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=aLq_NJxn95u9cM&tbnid=NCxCx24uV3JOtM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://www.craftsy.com/project/view/beetle-wings-earrings/26680&ei=U6qPU6aoI4bhoATTuILYAg&psig=AFQjCNHElP3XhZbSDv3pvcHG9kE_wl7y3g&ust=1402010476926331http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=wfaHyuzHBo-tdM&tbnid=W8On-wqcPofJIM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://www.popsci.com.au/science/meet-mathieu-mirano-the-science-geek-of-the-fashion-world&ei=vaqPU7TmMdLboASUuoHQDg&psig=AFQjCNE2mXaFBF7jpBfA3NaQMkveWtgIOg&ust=1402010665705382http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=wfaHyuzHBo-tdM&tbnid=W8On-wqcPofJIM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://www.popsci.com.au/science/meet-mathieu-mirano-the-science-geek-of-the-fashion-world&ei=vaqPU7TmMdLboASUuoHQDg&psig=AFQjCNE2mXaFBF7jpBfA3NaQMkveWtgIOg&ust=1402010665705382

  • Horyuji Amida triad, wall painting

    Transition from Bodhisattva Padmapani, detail of a wall painting in Ajanta Cave, later 5th century to Horyuji Amida triad, wall painting

  • Yakushi triad, YakushijiTemple, Nara, 8th century, Bronze

    Vairocana Buddha, Longmen caves, Luoyang, Tang Dynasty, 676, Limestone

    Voluptuous style in Yakushi-ji Buddha triad sculpture in Nara is based on Tang Dynasty style

    Late Nara Period (Tempyo Period) 710-794

  • Todaiji temple, original 8th century, refurbished in late 19th century

  • Daibutsu ("Great Buddha")Todaiji temple

    Original image: casting process began 746, completed 752

    Current image:

    Body dates to 1192

    Hands date to 16th century

    Head dates to 19th century

  • Fukukenjaku Kannon

    mid 8th cent. Todaiji 3rd Month Hall Dry lacquer with gilding

  • 23

  • Shukongojin 733, painted clay3rd Month Hall at Todaiji

    24

  • Four directional guardians of Kaidanin, TodaijiMid-8th century. Unfired clay, pigment.

  • GanjinCirca 763Dry lacquer with pigment

  • Heian period (794-1185)

    710: Nara period capital Heijky (now Nara) built

    784: New capital built in Nagaoka

    Abandoned after 10 years

    794: Move capital to Heianky (Capital of Peace and Tranquillity,

    Termination of government sponsored workshops

    Restriction of temples in capital

    Rise of New Forms of Buddhism (Shingon & Tendai)

    894: Trade with continent ended-Japan becomes closed

    Fujiwara family becomes most important and serves as regent (sessho) when emperor was child or civil dictator (kanpaku)when emperor was adult

    Fujiwara dominated political system by marrying their daughters intoimperial family, especially the emperors

    Basis of wealth was income from country estates (shoen) which were often tax exempt and controlled by absentee owners in Kyoto

  • Kondo Muroji: Early Heian

  • http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=Q1Jfk4I1LJezYM&tbnid=rHcoGYvoTXdD8M:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://japanshrinestemples.blogspot.com/2013/05/muro-ji.html&ei=vh26U-LJOIX-oQTDw4HgCg&bvm=bv.70138588,d.cGU&psig=AFQjCNHDn1sTNhFdpYMBx0VL9ah5iO2tHw&ust=1404792619605251http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=Q1Jfk4I1LJezYM&tbnid=rHcoGYvoTXdD8M:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://japanshrinestemples.blogspot.com/2013/05/muro-ji.html&ei=vh26U-LJOIX-oQTDw4HgCg&bvm=bv.70138588,d.cGU&psig=AFQjCNHDn1sTNhFdpYMBx0VL9ah5iO2tHw&ust=1404792619605251

  • Early Heian sculpture = Jogan style

    http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=mIqewsLTzdEISM&tbnid=uTLEZrmb4yUm6M:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://artstor.wordpress.com/2011/12/15/now-available-additional-qtvr-panoramas-from-columbia-university/&ei=N-a5U-WrG9fooAT-v4KgCg&bvm=bv.70138588,d.cGU&psig=AFQjCNFIwEbpJApASyTdDAhR_O5gLNR4wg&ust=1404777918909117http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=mIqewsLTzdEISM&tbnid=uTLEZrmb4yUm6M:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://artstor.wordpress.com/2011/12/15/now-available-additional-qtvr-panoramas-from-columbia-university/&ei=N-a5U-WrG9fooAT-v4KgCg&bvm=bv.70138588,d.cGU&psig=AFQjCNFIwEbpJApASyTdDAhR_O5gLNR4wg&ust=1404777918909117

  • Shaka or Yakushi, Muroji, Early Heian

    One block Hompa shiki or wave style carving

    http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=XA4h0msVAk4VhM&tbnid=1HbJxQpAKPw-DM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/drapery-robes-japan-buddha-statues.html&ei=T-S5U53fEIiDogSiy4HgDg&bvm=bv.70138588,d.cGU&psig=AFQjCNFIwEbpJApASyTdDAhR_O5gLNR4wg&ust=1404777918909117http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=XA4h0msVAk4VhM&tbnid=1HbJxQpAKPw-DM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/drapery-robes-japan-buddha-statues.html&ei=T-S5U53fEIiDogSiy4HgDg&bvm=bv.70138588,d.cGU&psig=AFQjCNFIwEbpJApASyTdDAhR_O5gLNR4wg&ust=1404777918909117

  • Yakushi at Muroji:

    Early Heian single block technique

    http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=JUY9SetsWV-rPM&tbnid=LwSXe_QWKCZlTM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://facweb.furman.edu/~jleave/courses/arteastasia/slide root/SLIDE_PROJECT/10a.html&ei=zOS5U4nqDs28oQTkwYLYAw&bvm=bv.70138588,d.cGU&psig=AFQjCNFIwEbpJApASyTdDAhR_O5gLNR4wg&ust=1404777918909117http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=JUY9SetsWV-rPM&tbnid=LwSXe_QWKCZlTM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://facweb.furman.edu/~jleave/courses/arteastasia/slide root/SLIDE_PROJECT/10a.html&ei=zOS5U4nqDs28oQTkwYLYAw&bvm=bv.70138588,d.cGU&psig=AFQjCNFIwEbpJApASyTdDAhR_O5gLNR4wg&ust=1404777918909117

  • Yakushi at Jingoji

    early Heian 67

    single block

  • http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=S6hvhJAR2NZt6M&tbnid=l-FpDBdm0hQ6nM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_National_Treasures_of_Japan_(sculptures)&ei=kO25U4vsE4OHogT1noDQBw&bvm=bv.70138588,d.cGU&psig=AFQjCNH8FMP5mfX0ixoflGLharlyvUpUNQ&ust=1404780200427580http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=S6hvhJAR2NZt6M&tbnid=l-FpDBdm0hQ6nM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_National_Treasures_of_Japan_(sculptures)&ei=kO25U4vsE4OHogT1noDQBw&bvm=bv.70138588,d.cGU&psig=AFQjCNH8FMP5mfX0ixoflGLharlyvUpUNQ&ust=1404780200427580http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=S6hvhJAR2NZt6M&tbnid=l-FpDBdm0hQ6nM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://plaza.rakuten.co.jp/cotton12/diary/201201110000/&ei=e-25U6z7FMi9oQT-hYLwDQ&bvm=bv.70138588,d.cGU&psig=AFQjCNH8FMP5mfX0ixoflGLharlyvUpUNQ&ust=1404780200427580http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=S6hvhJAR2NZt6M&tbnid=l-FpDBdm0hQ6nM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://plaza.rakuten.co.jp/cotton12/diary/201201110000/&ei=e-25U6z7FMi9oQT-hYLwDQ&bvm=bv.70138588,d.cGU&psig=AFQjCNH8FMP5mfX0ixoflGLharlyvUpUNQ&ust=1404780200427580

  • Shingon Buddhism

    Esoteric = Mikkyo has secret teachings as opposed to Exoteric Buddhism which is revealed, not hidden teachings

    True Word = Shingon Mantra = Chant for invoking power of a deity Mudra = Symbolic hand gestures Gorinnoto = 5 element pagoda (stupa) Mandala = schematic representation of deities or symbols

    of Buddhist idea