Text of Chapter 28 Review: “The Confident Years: 1953-1964”
Chapter 28 Review: The Confident Years: 1953-1964
Directions: Complete the section of the timeline that you have been assigned by brainstorming information about it: (5 min.) Date and page number from book. Significance (include details about the event as well as its impact on the United States during the Cold War). As each group comes up to explain their event, complete the timeline handout as they explain the details.group
Iran and Guatemala 1953 - 1954 Iran 1953 Iran nationalized British and American oil companies there, US supported the Shah in a coup to overthrow the government. Guatemala 1954 US C.I.A. installed a pro-American government when communists threatened United Fruit Company and after the govt accepted weapons from the Communist bloc.
Directions: 1. Iran and Guatemala 2. Vietnam War 3. Suez Crisis 4. Sputnik 5. Castro overthrows Batista 6. U-2 Incident 7. Bay of Pigs 8. JFK and Khrushchev meet in Vienna 9. The Berlin Wall 10. The Alliance For Progress 11. Cuban Missile Crisis 12. Limited Test Ban Treaty
Vietnam 1954 U.S. had been giving aid to Ngo Diem of South Vietnam against Communist Ho Chi Minh of North Vietnam since 1954. Geneva Accords est. division. U.S. encouraged Diem to form a permanent South Vietnam, had popularity in cities but was opposed in rural areas by communist Vietcong. 1961-63 JFK sends 16k troops, looks other way when Diem is assassinated Another Proxy War? * U.S. reinforced this with the creation of S.E.A.T.O. in 1954.
The Suez Crisis 1956 Egypt France, Britain and Israel attack Egypt when Egyptian President Nasser seized the Suez Canal US forces a cease fire in an effort to prevent war. To also give the US a more favorable view in the Middle East (Eisenhower Doctrine).
1957 - Sputnik I The Russians have beaten America in spacethey have the technological edge! US concern was due to the fact that the Soviets could also use this technology to launch an atomic or Hydrogen bomb against the US. Also viewed as a psychological loss for America More money was earmarked for math and science in schools in order to close the gap. (October Sky).
Castro overthrows Batista 1959 Fulgencio Batista was overthrown by rebel leader Fidel Castro in 1959. Castro appeared to be pro-American at first, until he began accepting money from the Soviet Union, and eventually declaring Cuba a Communist state with strong ties to the USSR US concern stemmed from a strong Soviet ally so close to American soil. Set the stage for the Bay of Pigs Invasion and later, the Cuban Missile Crisis.
U-2 Incident May, 1960 Col. Francis Gary Powers plane was shot down over Soviet airspace. IKE announced that US had lost a weather plane, Khrushchev held press conference about the incident.. Damaged US/Soviet trust.
Bay of Pigs Incident April, 1961 (Operation Mongoose) 1959 Fidel Castro overthrows 1959 Fidel Castro overthrows Fulgencio Batista and forms Fulgencio Batista and forms ties with the U.S.S.R. ties with the U.S.S.R. 1961 U.S. supports Cuban 1961 U.S. supports Cuban exiles with C.I.A. to land and exiles with C.I.A. to land and overthrow Castro in Cuba = It overthrow Castro in Cuba = It FAILED. FAILED. 6/1961 Incident makes JFK 6/1961 Incident makes JFK appear weak to Khrushchev appear weak to Khrushchev at Summit Conference. at Summit Conference.
Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled. JFK appears this way due to the terrible failure of the Bay of Pigs incident. Will have long reaching effects as JFK tries to negotiate future treaties with the Soviets. JFK and Khrushchev Meet in Vienna June, 1961
Berlin Wall August, 1961 Soviets feel the need to stop the flow of people escaping to West Berlin from East Berlin. Khrushchev feels that JFK will not act to prevent the wall from going up. An example of what Churchill was warning the West about in his Iron Curtain Speech.
Alliance for Progress-1961 Program of economic aid to Latin America. Effort to prevent other nations from falling to Communism. Venezuelan President Rmulo Betancourt and U.S. President John F. Kennedy at La Morita, Venezuela, during an official meeting for the Alliance for Progress in 1961Rmulo BetancourtJohn F. Kennedy
October 15, 1962 U.S. reconnaissance photos showed missile sites in Cuba! Defense Secretary McNamara suggested a quarantine to block missile delivery. Soviets backed down in exchange for U.S. promise not to invade Cuba. JFK won back some of his lost prestige as a Cold War president. Cuban Missile Crisis
Limited Test Ban Treaty July, 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty 7/1963 JFKs greatest achievement. Treaty outlawed nuclear testing in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water. Soviets though refused onsite inspections. France and China, the other nuclear powers refused to sign. Important since it was a step in the right direction of limiting nuclear arms testing.
Five Paragraph AP Style Essay: Introductory paragraph Three body paragraphs each body paragraph needs a minimum of four well explained, described examples. UNDERLINE examples. Conclusion Prompt: Discuss how the period from 1953-1964 appeared to be a paradox for the U.S., both as a confident era, but also an insecure one. Brainstorm three categories of proof and some examples to support them.