Christology Part 3

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    THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY.VOL. IV. JULY 1900. NO.3.

    ~ . o d r i n l l l ~ l t e . o 1 . o 9 1 1 . CHRISTOLOGY.

    ( CoIIdIuW.JI I . TH E OFFICE AND WORK OF CHRIST.

    Christ the Prophet.A prophet is an official spokesman of God. Thus saidthe Lord to Moses, "Aaron shall be tky spokesman unto the

    people: and he shall be, even he shall be to thee t."nsteado f a moutk, and thou shalt be to Izt"m t."nstead of God." 1)And in this capacity Aaron was a propket. The Lord saidunto Moses, "See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh, andAaron thy brother shall be tky propket. "2 ) I t was not Aaronwho of his own accord stepped in to supply the deficiencyof which his brother Moses complained; 3) but by divine ap-pointment he was made a spokesman of God, and thus washe constituted a prophet. Propkecy came not by tke Wf,tl o fman"') The prophet does not appear in his own name, butcomes with a commission from a superior, whose agent orpublic officer he is in his capacity of a prophet, a spokes-man by divine commission, uttering the thoughts and willand very words of him from whom he has his commission.5)

    1) Exod. 4, 16. 2) Exod. 7, 1.3) Exod. 4, 10. 4) 2 Pet. I, 21.5) Matt. I, 22. Acts I, 16; 3, 18. Amos 3, 1. Jer. 1, Z. at.17

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    258 C TO OGY .I have SENT unto you all MY SERVANTS THB PROPHETS, saysGod by Jeremiah,l) and of those who would not hearken tothem he says, This is a na#on that obeyeth not THE VOICEOF THE LoRD THEIR GOD.2)But a greater prophet than Moses and Aaron, than Isaiahand Jeremiah, was promised to Israel when the Lord saidto Moses, I w-ill raise them up a prophet from among the':rbrethren Nke unto thee, and wll put my words -i1l his moutll.and he shall speak unto them all tltat I shall command k-im.3)Here the coming prophet is an official spokesman of God,who, under divine commission, raised up by the Lord himself, should utter the words which God would put in hismouth and speak all that God would command him. AndMoses truly said unto tlte fatlters, A prophet sltall the Lordyour God raise up unto you ofyour bretltren.4) For in JesusChrist that promise was fulfilled. When the fulness of timewas come, God, wlto at sundry tz"mes and -in d':vers mannersspake -in #me past unto tlte fathers by the prophets, hath -intltese last days SPOKEN UNTO US BY HIS SON.5) Jesus ofNazareth, the God-man, was o f a truth that prophet thatshould come -into tlte world. l ) Of him the Father himselfsaid, This is my beloved Son, ":n whom I am well pleased,HEAR YE HIM.7) Having read the prophecy of Isaiah, Tilesp.,:rit o f the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord Ita/!.ano":nted me to preaclt, etc.S) Jesus said, This day is tllSscripture fulfilled ":n your e a r s : ~ ) He, the God-man, whoaccording to his divine nature was from above, and not o ftltis world,lO) and at the same time, according to his humannature, the Son of man, l) says of himself, As my Fatlter ItatllTAUGHT me, I speak tltese tk-ings," and Ite tltat SBNT me iswt"tlt me.12) He that SENT me is true,' and I speak to tlteworld tltose tk-ings wk-ich I have heard of It':"" .18) I Itave "ot1) Jer. 7, 25.4) Acta 3, 22.7) Matt. 17,5.9) Luke 4,21.12) John 8, 28 f.

    2) Jer. 7, 27 f. 3) Deat. 18, 18.5) Hebr. I, 1 f. 6) John 6, 14.8) Is. 61, 1. Cf. Lake 4, 18.10) John 8, 23. 11) John 8, 28.13) John 8, 26.

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    CHIUSTOLOGY. 259spoken oj myself, but the Father which sent me, he gaveme a commandment, what I should say, and what I shouldspeak.1) In all these and similar statements Christ describesand exhibits himself as a prophet, a spokesman of God bydivine commission.

    And this he was not incidentally. He says, To this endwas I born, and for this cause came I into the world thatI should bear witness unto the truth.2) He is himself thetruth,3) and full o fgrace and TRUTH.') In him are kt"d allIke treasures o f wisdom and knowledge.") He that comethfrom heaven is above all, and what he hath seen and heard,that he testijieth. G) He whom God hath sent speaketh thewords o f God; for God giveth not the Spirit by measureunto kt"m.7) And hence he says of himself, We speak thatwe do know, and testify that we have seen.8) As in his sacer-dotal office God was in Christ reconciling the world untohimself, so in his prophetic office God was in Christ andpreached the peace he himself established, the reconcilia-tion wrought by himself.9) As in his sacerdotal office, inwhich, being God himself, he is the mediator between Godand man, a greater mediator than Moses, the mediator ofthe old covenant, so in his prophetic office, in which, beingGod himself, he is the spokesman of God, he is a greaterprophet than Moses was, greater also than John, who wasmore than a prophet,10) but not worthy to unloose the shoe'slatchet of the prophet of Nazareth.l1) The law was givenby Moses, who had held converse with God on mount Sinaimany days.D) But grace and truth came by Jesus Christ,not by inspiration or suggestion, but as by the only begottenSon, wkt"ch is in the bosom o f the Father,U) testifying what

    1) John 12, 49; d . v. SO; ch. 14, 10.3) John 14, 6. 4) John 1, 14.6) John 3, 32. 7) John 3, 34.9) Eph. 2, 17; d . v. 22. 2 Cor. S, 18 f.10) Matt. 11, 9. Luke 7, 26-28.12) John 1, 17. Ezod. 19, 20 f.; 24, 15-18.

    2) John 18, 37.S) Col. 2, 3.8) John 3, 11.11) John 1, 27.13) John 1, 18.

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    260 CHRISTOLOGY .he has seen and heard in the eternal counsels of God. Neither according to his humanity only, nor according to hisdivinity only, but the God-man, Jesus Christ, who is madeunto us righteousness in his sacerdotal office, is also of Godmade unto us 'wisdom 1) in his prophetic office. In this prophetic office as in his priesthood Christ is sui generis. Heis not only the greatest of the prophets, but h TCPOrrirr;

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    CBllISTOLOGY. 261ing the deaf to hear, and the dumb to Speak,l) lie cllargedtknn tkat tlley sllould tell no man. l ) When Christ fed thefive thousand whom he had taugkt many tllings,8) speakingIInto tkem of tile kingdom of God,") he achieved his pur-pose when they who kad seen tke miracle tkat Jesus dt'd,said, TIIis is of a trutll tkat propket tllat skould come intotke world.") But when others, instead of believing in himas the Prophet sent of God, set about to make kt."m a kingaccording to their own perverse notions, ke departed againinto a mountain, kt."mself alone.e) When in his own countryhe achieved little by his doctrine beyond the astonishmentof those who said, Wkence katk tkis man tkis wisdom, and'kese migkty works1 Is not tkis tke carpenter's son 1 etc.,7)and some were even offended in kim.8) Jesus rebuked themfor slightiug his prophetic office,lI) and ke did not many1IIigkty works tllere because of tlteir unbelief.10) That menmight know and believe that the Father was in him and hein the Father t1) was the end and aim of his miracles. I toldyou, said he, and ye believed not,. tke works tkat I do in myFatker:'s name, tltey bear witness of me.12) Thus was Jesusof Nazareth appr01Jed of God by miracles and wonders andsigns,13) and there were those who understood this relationof Christ's words and works. We know, said Nicodemus,tkat tkou art a teacker come from God,. for no man can dotltese miracles tllat tltou doest, except God be witk kim.14)And when by the very beginning of miracles Jesus mant'-fested fortk Itis glory, Itis disetples belt"eved on Itim, 14) Thus,also, wken Ite was in Jerusalem at tke passover, in tlte feastday, many believed in kis name, wlten tkey saw tke mira-cles wlticll ke dt'd. 18)

    1) :Mark 7, 37.3) Mark 6, 34.6) John 6, 15.9) Ibid. v. 57.12) John 10, 25.15) John 2, 11.

    2) Mark 7, 36; d . 5, 43.4) Luke 9, 11.7) Matt. 13, 54 f.10) Ibid. v. 58.13) Acts 2, 22.16) John 2, 23.

    Matt. 8, 4; 9,30; 12,16.5) John 6, 14.8) Matt. 13, 57,11) :rohn 10, 38,14) John 3, 2.

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    262 CBllISTOLOGY.It has been said above!) that Christ's resurrection wasa divine acknowledgment of the completeness of the workof redemption and of Christ's atoning sacrifice. But not

    only in his priesthood was Jesus publicly acknowledged inand by his resurrection. When the Jews demanded a signwhereby he would establish his authority for casting out theabominations from the temple of the Lord, he said, De-stroy t"is temple, and in t"ree days I will raise it up.") B.t"e spake of tlte temple of "is body. WIlen t"erefore lie wasrisen from t"e dead, "is disciples remembered t"at "e hadsaid t"is unto t"em and t"ey BBLIBVED tke scripture, andTHB WORD WHICH JESUS HAD SAID.3) Thus did the signwhereby Jonas was declared a prophet of the Lord to themen of Niniveh prefigure the greater sign whereby Jesus,greater than Jonas, was declared a prophet sent of God!)This connectiou between the word of Christ and his res-urrection was pointed out in the angelic easter sermonpreached to the women of Galilee in the empty sepulchre,when the angel said, Tell "is disciples and Peter t"at hegoet" before you into Galilee: t"ere s"all ye see kim, AS HESAID UNTO YOU.5) This was the great argument employedby the apostles to accomplish their object of establishingthe truth of the gospel of Jesus Christ.G) And to this day theresurrection of Christ is the keystone of Christianity. WhenLepaux, member of the French Directory, complained toTalleyrand of the little headway he made with his new re-ligion, Theophilanthropy, Talleyrand recommended a verysimple method whereby his friend might hope to gain groundfor his enterprise, and when asked what that method was,he said: "Preach your doctrine, work miracles, heal thesick, quicken the dead, then be crucified and buried, and

    1) pp. 141. ISO. Z) John Z, 18.3) John Z, Zl f. Cf. Matt. 1Z, 39 f. 4) Matt. 1Z, 39 f.5) Mark 16, 7; cf. 14, ZS. Matt. Z6, 3Z.6) Acts Z, Z4; 3, IS. Z6; 4, 10; 5, 30; 10,40; 13,30.33.34.37; 17,31;Z6, 8. 1 Cor. IS, 14-17.

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    CHlUSTOLOGY. 263rise again on the third day, and you may meet with a fairmeasure of success."-Christ, in his prophetic office, was not the originatorof a new religion. Search the scriptures, we hear him say jfor -in them ye thz'nk ye have eternal life, and they are they'Ulkch testify of me. l ) When he preached at Nazareth, heexpounded the prophet Isaiah. l ) And when he was risenfrom the dead, he reprimanded his disciples for being slowof heart to believe all that the prophets had spoken, andbeginning from Moses and all the prophets expounded untothem in all the scriptures the tkngs concernl,'ng h-imself.3)Even the eleven, his apostles, who had heard his doctrineand witnessed his miracles for years and seen him risenfrom the dead, were by their risen Lord instructed from thescriptures as he said, "These are the words whti:h I spakeunto you, wkle I was yet with you, that all tkngs must befulfilled, whl,i:h were written in the law oj Moses, and inthe prophets, and -in the psalms, concern-ing me." Thenopened he their understanding, that they might understandthe scriptures, and said unto them, "THUS IT IS WRITTEN,and thus i t behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from thedead the tkrd day: and that repentance and remission ofsins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginn-ing at Jerusalem. ".) In fact, it was the Spirit ojChrist that was in the prophets and testified beforehand ojthe sufferings ofChrist, and the glory that should follow. li )Israel of old drank of that spt-'ritual Rock that followedthem" and that Rock was Christ.8) In various Messianicpsalms and in the Prophets the Son of God speaks of him-self in prophecy, predicting what he should do and sufferafter his incarnation,7) What the Son of God had spokenby the prophets long before his coming into the flesh, hedid not set aside when he was made flesh.

    1) John 5, 39. 2) Luke 4, 16-21. 3) Luke 24, 25-27.4) Luke 24,44-47. 5) 1 Pet. I, 11. 6) 1 Cor. 10.4,7) Ps. 16. 22. 40. 69. Is. 50, 6; 61, 1. Cf. Luke 4. 18 ff.

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    264 CBllISTOI.OGY.Least of all was Christ, in his prophetic office, a newlawgiver. When he did preach the law, it was the law ofMoses, the sum and substance of which was, TIw# sui t 1mJ,tlee Lord tley God with all tley leeart, a"d witle all tley sO#l,

    a"d with all thy mind, and, Tho# shalt lo'IJe thy "eig""oras thyseif.l) In the Sermon on the Mount, he did not extend or amend, but only exhibit and expound, the law.2)And when a certain lawyer had quoted the summary of thelaw as it was written in the law, Jesus did not correct him,but said u"to him, "Thou hast a"swered riglet: this do,and thou slealt /t."ve." B) Christ himself, being made undertlee law,') walked according to the old commandments, giv-ing us an example that we should do as he leas do"e,") walkeven as he has walked, I) follow his footsteps. 1) And inasmuch as in his fulfillment of the law, also in his suffering,loving his brethren to the end and praying for his enemies,he has set us an example, that taking upon us his yoke wemay learn of him,8) he is, in this, our prophet, teachingthe law, the old law of love, by his example. This is hisnew commandment. Love one another,. as I have 1000ttlyou, that ye also love one a"other.')But Christ's proper prophetic task and work was topreach the gospel of the kingdomlO) to show the glad ti-dings of the kingdom of God.U) For this was he anointedand sent, to preach the gospel to the poor, to heal the brom-hearted, to preach delivera"ce to the captives, a"d recoveri"Kof sight to the blind, to set at /t."berty them tleat are brwisttl,to preacle the acceptable year of he Lord. 2) When he taughtand preached in the cities, the poor had the gospel preaclu4to them,13) and this was whereby he would be known ashe that should come.14) At that time he said, I t unk t"u,

    1) Matt. 22, 37-39. Cf. Deut. 6, 5; 10,12; 30,6. - Lev. 19, 18.2) Matt. 5-7. 3) Luke 10, 26-28. 4) Gal. 4, 4.5) John 13, 15. 6) 1 John 2, 6. 7) 1 Pet. 2, 21.8) Matt. 11, 29. 9) John 13, 34; d . IS, 12.10) Matt. 4, 23. Mark I, 14. 11) Lake 8,1.12) Luke 4, 18-22. 13) Matt. 11, 1. 5. 14) Matt. 11, 3.

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    CBlUS'l'OLOGY. 265o Fatker, Lord ofMaVe1t and earl", be&awe t"o# "ast kidtkese tkings fro", t"e wise and prwtlent, and "ast revealedtAem #nto babes,1) and then continued, Co",e #nto me, allye t"at labor and are "eavy laden, and I willgive yo# rest.t)Thus Christ, in his prophetic as in his priestly office, iseminently the Savior, preac!aing deliverance to t"e captives,as grado#s words proceeded out of kis ",out".8) He cameand preacked peace,) the peace which he established inhis priesthood he dispensed in his prophetic office.I) Beingthe prophet sent of God, it was his task to announce thewill and counsel of God. And hence we hear him say," Tkis is t"e will of !aim tkat sent ",e, tkat every one wkic"seetk tke Son, and believetk on ki"" may kave everlastinglife. "e) Hence, when he taught his disciples, ke expounded#nto tkem in all tke scnptures t"e t"ings concerning HIMSEI.F.7) In his sacerdotal prayer he says, Tnis is life eternaltkal tkey ",ig"t know t"ee tke only true God, and JeswCkrist wkom tkou kast sent.8) To communicate such savingknowledge was his prophetic work j and of its performancehe says, I kave given unto tke", tky words wkick tkou gavest",e, and tkey kave received tkem, and kave KNOWN surelytkat I ca",e out from tkee, and tkey kave BELIEVED tkattko# didst send ",e.') And again, 0 rt"gkteous Fatker, tkeworld katk not known tkee: but I kave KNOWN tkee, andtkese kave KNOWN tkat t"ou kast sent me. And I kave DECLARED unto tkem t"y name, and will declare it, tkat tkelove wkerewitk tkou kast loved me may be in tkem and I intkem.lO)

    When Christ here says, I WILL declare, TJlOJplt1OJ, I w#lmake known, he points to a continuation of his propheticwork. To the last moments of his visible presence amonghis disciples we find him occupied with this work, speaking

    1) Jlatt. 11, 25.4) Eph. 2, 17.6) John 6, 40.8) John 17, 3.

    2) Matt. 11, 28. 3) Luke 4, 18. 22.5) John 14, 27; 20,19.26. Eph. 2, 14-17.7) Luke 24,27; cf. v. 44.9) John 17, 8. 10) John 17, 25 f.

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    266 CHRISTOLOQY.oj the things pertainz'ng to the kingdom of God.1) Nor didhis office terminate when he was taken up and a cloud re-ceived him out of their sight. His parting words recordedare, Ye shall be witnesses unto me.") He was the prophetsent of God j and his work was not to come to a close afterhis exaltation. As my Father has sent me, even so send Iyou, said he as he endowed them with the power and author-ity to dispense the benefits of his redemption.3) As he hadpreached the gospel, he also charged his church, Go ye ':ntoall the world, and preach the gospel to every creature,") andwhen they, in obedience to this charge, went forth andpreached everywhere, the Lord worked wuh them.G) I t washis work which they performed. Repentance and forgive-ness ofsins should be preached in his name,S) as by ministersofChrist,7) whoprayed IN CHRIST'S STEAD, Beye reconciletJto God, and whose word was his word, as he had said, Hethat heareth you heareth me.8) St. Paul, the great apostleof the Gentiles, is everywhere an apostle of Jesus Christ,t)and says, I willnot dare to speak ofany of hose things whichChrist hath not wrought by me, to make the Gentiles obedient, by word and deed. 10 ) Christ is the chief Shepherd,ll)and the lambs and sheep to be fed by his ministers are his.12)To this day he gives preachers of righteousness, as fromthe beginning he gave some, apostles,' and some, propluts,'and some, evangelists,' and some, pastors and teacher-s. 12)Hence one doctrine only is admissible in the church ofChrist, the doctrine of the one prophet sent of God, whoseministers are truly his ministers only as far as their doctrineis his. Paul, the apostle of Christ, is not ashamed of theGospel of Christ j 14) yea more, he pronounces the curse even

    1) Acts 1, 3. Cf. Mark 16. Luke 24. Johll ZO and 21.2) Acts 1, 8. Cf. Luke 24, 48. 49.3) Johll 20, 21-23. 4) Mark 14, 15.6) Luke 24,47. 7) 1 Cor. 4, 1.9) 1 Cor. 1, 1. 2 Cor. 1, 1. Gal. 1, 1. al .

    5) Mark 14, 20.8) Luke 10, 16.10) Rom. 15, 18.1l) 1 Pet. 5, 4. 12) Johll 21, 15-17. Cf. Acta ZO, 28.13) Eph. 4, 1l. 14) Rom. 1, 16.

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    CHRISTOLQGY. 267upon the angel from heaven who should preach anothergospel than that which he has preached.1) In Christianhouseholds and congregations the word of Ckrist skoulddwell rickly in all wisdom,3) and the doctrine which shouldbe voiced forth from the church throughout the world isagain tke word of tke Lord.3) The doarz"ne of Ckrist is thedoctrine of the only true religion. Whosoever transgressetk,and abidetk not':n THE DOCTRINE OF CHRIST, katk not God.He tkat abidetk z'n tke DOCTRINE OF CHRIST, ke katk botktke Fatker and tke Son})

    And the doctrine of Christ is the doctrine of Moses andthe prophets, of the Scriptures. Though the Canon of holyScripture was enlarged by the addition of the inspired writings of the New Testament, the Spirit of Christ who was inthe holy penmen did not speak of kz"mse/f,5) but only exhibited with greater clearness and in more plentiful measuretkose tkz"ngs wkz"ck God before kad skowed by tke moutk ofall kis propkets,8) and what Christ had taught in accordancetherewith.7) He skall take of mine and skew t unto you B)said Christ when he promised the coming of the Spirit oftruth, who, while he would guide Christ's own disciplesinto all truth, would not speak of himself, but whatsoeverhe should hear.lI) Thus, for all time, one u our Master,even Ckrist t 10 ) who has said, I f ye continue in my word,tken are ye my duciples indeed,' and ye skall know tketrutk, and tke trutk skall make you free. l1 ) By this saving truth Christ the Prophet is to-day and for all times theSavior, whose gospel, tke gospel of Ckrist, is tke power ofGod unto salvation to every one tkat believetk 12) This isthe word of the truth of the gospel, which u in all tkeworld and bringetk fortk fruit, 13) and whereby tke Fatkerkatk delt:vered us from tke power of darkness, and katktranslated us into tke kingdom of kz"s dear Son.lf)

    1) Gal. 1, 8. 9. 2) Col. 3, 16. 3) 1 Thess. 1, 8. 4) 2 John 9.5) John 16, 13. 6) Acts 3, 18.; cf. 10, 43; 15, 15. 7) Acts 1, 1.8) John 16, 14. 15. 9) John 16, 13. 10) Matt . 23, 8. 10.11) John 8, 31 f. l2) Rom. 3, 16. 13) Col. 1, 5 f. 14) Col. 1, 13.

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    268 CBRlSTOLOGY.Cbrlst tbe King.

    When Jesus said before Pilate, I AM A KING, he borewitness unto the truth. I) In the exercise of his propheticoffice he, the suffering High Priest, authoritatively pronounced himself a king. He does not say, " I shall be aking " for when he was in the manger, he was declaredChrist the Lord, and the Christ, the promised Messiah, wasprophesied a king 1) Hence the enquiry of the wise menfrom the East after Him that was born King of the Jews,3)and their offerings meet for a king.4) Prefigured even inthe days of Abraham by that mysterious priest and king towhom Abraham gave the tenth of the spoils,6) and prophesieda priest after the order of Melchizedek,') he is a King ofrig"teousness and a King of Salem, w"';ck is, King ofpeace.7) Of him the psalmist said, Tke Lord said unto myLord, Sit tllou at my rigkt "and, until I make t""ne e"emiestky footstool. T"e Lord skall send t"e rod of t"y strengt"out of Zion: rule tkou in tke midst of tki"e enemies. B) Hiskingdom is universal. He is K':ng of kings and Lord ojlords.8) This royal dignity is not identical with his divinemajesty, but an ojJidal capacity. I lIave set my k';ng uponmy koly ",.11 of Zion, says the Lord. IO) Christ is king bydivine appointment, in power and dignity conferred uponhim. Allpower is GIVEN unto""", -in keaven and';n eartk.ll)

    In his vast kingdom Christ the God-man has varioussubjects, and he rules them in various ways. His kingdomis a kingdom of power, a kingdom of grace, and a kingdomof glory.Christ's kingdom is a k';ngdom of power inasmuch ashe with his omnipotence governs the universe, controlling

    1) John 18, 37.2) Jer. 23, 5. 6.3) Matt. 2, 2.6) Ps. 110, 4.8) Ps. 110, 1. 2.

    41-44. Acts 2, 34.9) Rev. 19, 16.

    Is. 9, 6 f. Numb. 24, 17. Ps. 110,2. Cf. Hebr. I, 8.4) Matt. 2, 11. 5) Gen. 14, 18-ZO.7) Hebr. 7, 2.Cf. Matt. 22, 41-44. Mark 12, 35-37. Luke ZO.1 Cor. IS, 25. Hebr. I, 13. 1 Pet. 3, 22.10) Ps. 2, 6. 11) Matt. 28, 18.

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    CHRISTOLOGY. 269and directing all creatures according to his wise and goodand just purposes. Hereof the psalmist says, Thou madestkim to have domt"nion over tke works of thy kands; tkoukast put ALL THINGS under !tis feet: all skeep and oren,yea, and the beasts of tke field. l ) His dominion is universal. For t"n tkat ke put all t"n SUbjection under kim, heleft notMng tkat -is not put under kt"m. 2) There was givenkt"m domt"nion, and glory, and a kt"ngdom, tkat all people,natt"ons, and languages, skould serve kt"m " k-is domt"nzonis an everlasting dominion, wkick shall not pass away.B)Heaven and earth and hell, rational and irrational creatures,animate and inanimate beings, all things, are subject to hisroyal sceptre. The winds and the sea obey him;') diseaseand death are at his command; 5) the devils ask his permission to go away into the swine.8) And all this not onlyaccording to his divine nature, but also according to hishuman nature, not only after his exaltation, but also in thedays of his humility. For all power, which he had frometernity according to his divinity, was given unto kim intime according to his humanity; 7) and the God-man wasnot exalted to royal dignity and power after his resurrectionor ascension, but was born a king,8) and by innumerablemiracles, before his exaltation, manifested his dominionover angels and men and devils, disease and death, I) windand waves,lO) the water in the waterpots,U) the fishes inthe lake,12) the figtree in the way.13) Christ's humiliationconsisted in this very xeJJO)(1t', that, being a king, he tookupon himself the form of a servant, in his abstinence fromthe full and constant use and exercise of his royal powerand dominion according to his human nature. I t is pathet-

    1) Ps. 8, 6. 7. Cf. Hebr. 2, 7.8. 2) Hebr. 2, 8.3) Dan. 7, 14. Cf. Phil. 2, 10. 11. Eph. 1, 21. 22. 1 Pet. 3, 22.4) Matt. 8, 27. 5) The miracles of Christ.6) Matt. 8, 28 fl. 7) Matt. 28, 18.8) Micah 5, 1 f. Matt. 2, 2. 6. Luke 2, 11. Is. 9, 6. al.9) Mark 5, 41 f. John 11, 43 f. 10) Matt. 8, 23 fl .11) John 2, 7 fl . 12) Luke 5, 1 fl . 13) Matt. 21, 19-21.

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    270 CHlUSTOLOGY.ically significant that in the depth of his humiliation hesuffered himself to be decked out in the mockery of a shamsceptre and purple and crown, the insignia of royalty.!)But having drunk of the brook in the way, he lifted up hisroyal head,2) and in his exaltation he resumed the full andconstant use and exercise of his power and sway, beingcrowned with glory and honor.3) Especially is his sittingat the right hand of God that feature of his exaltationwhereby he entered into the full and constant participation,according to his human nature, in the exercise of the uni-versal dominion, rule, and government over heaven andearth and all creatures.') The final judgment, too, will bea manifestation of his royal majesty and exercise of his uni-versal dominion. When tke Son of man s"all come in kisglory and all tke koly angels witk kim, tken skall ke situpon tke tkrone o f kis glory, and before kim skall be gatk-ered all nations, tken skall THE KING say unto tkem on "isrigkt kand, Come, etc. lI) Then it will be manifest to sight,what we now believe, though now we see not yet all tkingsput under kim,S) and Christ's kingdom of power is an articleof faith revealed in the word.And this rex tremendae majestatis is revealed to us asa Prince and a Sav':or.7) He was the Savior not only inhis abstinence from his omnipotent rule of heaven and earth,but also in its exercise. It is remarkable that the miraclesof Jesus were acts of beneficence, as, be':ng ano':nted withpower, ke went about doing good.8) Moses changed waterinto blood j Jesus, into wine. Elisha said to Gehazi, "Theleprosy of N aaman shall cleave unto thee and unto thy seedfor ever j" and he went out from his presence a leper.8)Jesus said, to the leper, " I willj be thou cleanj" and immediately his leprosy was cleansed.10) All power is given

    1) Matt. 27, 28 fl .3) Hebr. 2, 7-JJ.5) Matt. 25, 31 fl .8) Acta 10, 38.

    John 19. 2 fl . 2) PI. 110, 7.4) Phil. 2, 9-11. 1 Pet. 3, 22. Eph. 1, 20-23.6) Hebr. 2, 8. 7) Acta 5. 31.9) 2 XiDga 5, 27. 10) Matt. 8, 3.

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    CHlUSTOI,OGY. 271unto him in heaven and in earth; therefore shall the workof extending his church among all nations be carried oneven unto the end of the world. I) He holds power andsway over the gates of hell, and this power and sway hehas promised to exercise in the defense and protection ofhis church, that the gates of hell shall not prevail againsther.2) The power wherewith he rules the universe is omnipotence ;3) and the working of that mighty power whichwas wrought in Christ is exercised to usward who believe.4)He is the lord and ruler of all things in heaven and in earthand under the earth,5) of all prindpality, and power, andmight, and doml,'nion, and every name that is named, notonly in this world, but also ":n that which is to come.e) Andhence we are more than conquerors through '''':m that lovedUS,7) and neither death, nor hie, nor angels, norpn'netpali-ties, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come,nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be ableto separate us from the love o fGod, which ":s in Christ Jesusour Lord.8)

    Yet, while Christ the King exerts his mighty power inand for his church on earth, and his believers are not ex-empt from but included in his kingdom of power, he hashis peculiar dealings with those of his subjects who hold apeculiar relation to him, who are his own in a peculiarsense,") a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holynation, a peculiar people. IO) Christ's kingdom is a king-dom ofgrace inasmuch as he, the only head of his church,rules his spiritual subjects, jointly and severally, by hisword. The church of Christ is not a democracy, wheremajorities rule; nor an aristocracy with a ruling superiorclass; but it is a monarchy, where the will of the king isthe law of the realm, where all power is vested in the sov-

    1) Matt. 28, 18-ZO.4) Bph. I, 19. ZO.7) Rom. 8, 37.9) 2 Tim. 2, 19.

    2) Matt. 16, 18. 3) Matt. 28, 18.5) PhU. 2, 10 f. 6) Bph. I, 21. 22.8) Rom. 8, 38. 39. Cf. John 10, 28. Rom. 8, 28.10) 1 Pet. 2, 9.

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    272 CBlUSTOLOGY.ereign, and the subjects have just such and so many rightsas the king has given them. The members of this IuJlynation, this peculiar people, are all those and only thosewhom God has called out of darkness into "is IIIarveiorulig"t,1) whom he has delivered frOlll t u power of darknessand translated into t"e kingdolll of"is dear SO.,I) saitltsand fait"ful in C"rist Jesus.a) This kingdom, though i .the world,') is not OF t"is world. i ) It is even now and onearth the kingdolll of heaven.') When Christ was askedwhen the kingdom of God should come, he answered andsaid, The kingdolll of God cOlllet" not willi observatiott:neither s"all they say, Lo "ere! or to there! for belaoU, tlukingdolll of God is wilIu"n you.7) I t is an invisible, spiritualkingdom. As in the government of the world God has hisministers,8) so also in his kingdom of grace there are IIIi,,-isters of Christ,') but their ministry differs from that of therulers of states and nations of this world. Ye know, saysJesus, that the princes of the Gentiles ezercise dOllli"ioIrover them, and they that are great ezercise authority UPOlrthem. But it shall not be so alllo"g you.18) "Not that wehave dominion over your faith," U) II neither as being lordsover God's heritage," 12) say the great apostles of Christ.In this kingdom of Christ there is but o"e Lord,lJI) and butone authority and power, that of the word and of Christ inthe word. Civil rulers bear the sword ;1') but in the kingdomof grace the weapons o f our waifare are not carnal, bidmighty through God to the pulling down of strong holds,casting down IMAGINATIONS, and every high th".g that ez-alteth 'itself against the KNOWLEDGE OF GoD, and bn'ngi"ginto captivity every thought to the OBEDIENCE OF CHRIST.15)

    1) 1 Pet. 2, 9. 2) Col. I, 16. 3) Phil. I, 1. Col. I, 2. Eph. I, 1.4) John 17, 11. 5) John 18, 36; 17, 14; IS, 19.6) Matt. 3, 2; 4, 17; 13,24.31.33.44.47; 18,23; 20, 1; 22, 1; 25,1.7) Luke 17,20.21. 8) Rom. 13,4. 9) 1 Cor. 4, 1.10) Matt. 20, 25. Mark 10,42. Luke 22,25. 11) 2 Cor. I, 24.12) 1 Pet. 5, 3. 13) Eph. 4, S. 1 Cor. 8, 6; 12, S.14) Rom. 13, 4. 15) 2 Cor. 10, 4. S. .

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    CHRlSTOLOGY. 273To set up a throne to human reason and imaginations in thechurch is treason and rebellion. To teach or entertain doc-trines contrary to those which convey the true knowledge ofGod in Christ Jesus is making war against the king of truth.Every thought which sets itself against a word of Christ mustbe subdued and led captive by the weapons which constitutethe panoply of Christ's warriors, especially by the sword ofthe Spirit, which is the word of God.1) To claim for a vis-ible church the dignity of the spiritual kingdom of Christ isto pervert the very nature of that kingdom j and he who de-mands homage as the visible head of the church is a rebel-lious pretender and impostor, not a vicegerent of Christ, butAntichrist. I) To wield the secular sword and exercise thepolice power of the state in the government and disciplineof the church, or to rule the state by the means of graceand the discipline of the church, is disorder and misrule inchurch and state.S) Anarchy is. to be discountenanced inthe church no less than in the state. Obey tkem tkat kavetke rule over you, and subm# yourselves, for tkey watck foryour souls,) is a divine commandment as truly binding uponall Christians in the church as we are put in mind to be sub-ject to principalities and /Jowers, to obey magistrates,5) in thestate and Let tke elders tkat rule well be counted wortky ojdouble konor, is said especially of those wko labor ~ ' n tkeUJord and doctrine.') But they rule "by the word and doc-trine." The apostle says, Know tkem wkich labor amongyO", and ARE OVER YOU IN THE LoRD and ADMONISH YOU j 7)and they admonish, or beseech, by the mercies of God.8)Christ's spiritual subjects are ruled precisely by that whichmakes them free. They are exhorted to stand fast in tkeliberty wherewith Ckrist hath made"s free.9) And they are

    1) Eph. 6, 13-17.Z) Z Thess. 2, 3. 4. 8-11.Matt. 22; 11. 1 John 2, 18. Dan. 11, 36-45. .S) Tit. 3, 1. Cf. 1 Pet. 2, 13. 14. Rom. 13, 1.7) 1 Thess. 5, 12. 8) Rom. 12, 1.18

    4) Hebr. 13, 17.6) 1 Tim. 5, 17.9) Gal. S, 1.

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    274 CBJUSTOLOGY.made free by the truth which they learn as they continue inthe word of Christ.1) Christ, tlte BEAD o f tlte clturclt, is alsotlte SAVIOR of Itis body.") In his kingdom of grace he, theKing of righteousness, divides the spoil of his victories, andhis subjects rejoice.B) Forgiveness of sins, the peace of Godwhich surpasses all understanding, comfort in all our a1Ilictions, hope and joy even in the valley of the shadow of death,are the blessings dispensed to the subjects of this kingdom.And all this of grace, and by the means of grace, accordingto Christ's ordinances. As he distributed the loaves andfishes through his disciples, so he has ordained that thepublic administration of his spiritual benefits shall be performed by the ministry which he has established,') and thatall things be done decently and 'h, order.5) The powers whichthe King has delegated to his subjects must be exercisedaccording to the King's own instructions. He has determined how the keys of the kingdom of heaven shall beapplied to their proper purposes.') He has prescribed anddefined the qualifications for the ministry in the church.7)He has for all times ordained how his sacraments shall beadministered, saying, Tltis do ye,S) he has also determinedwho should and who should not be permitted to eat of thesacramental bread and drink of the cup of the Lord,-) andit is not charity but rebellious presumption to set aside hisroyal will by what is called open communion. He has madehis spiritual subjects fellowcitizens w#It tlte saints,10) and itis gross disloyalty and treason when Christians are leaguedtogether in unholy alliance with the enemies of their Kingand his kingdom in the face of his injunction. Be ye notunequally yoked togetlter w#It unbelievers: forwltat fellow-

    1) John 8, 31. 32. 2) Eph. 5, 23. 3) Is. 9, 3.4) 1 Cor. 12, 29. Rom. 10, IS. 2 Cor. 5, 18. Acts 20, 28. 1 Pet. 5, 2.5) 1 Cor. 14,40. 6) Matt. 18, 15-17. 1 Cor. 5, 13.7) 1 Tim. 3, 2. 3; 3,4-7 . Tit. 1,5-9. 1 Cor. 14, 34. 1 Tim. 2, 12.8) Matt. 28, 18-ZO. 1 Cor. 11, Z4 f. Luke 22, 19.9) 1 Cor. 11, 27-29. Matt. 26, 26. 27. 10) Eph. 2, ZO.

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    CHRISTOLOGY. 275s"ip "al" ng"leousness wil" unng"leousness , and w"alcommunion "at" lig"t wit" darkness' And w"at concordkat" C"rist wit" Delia" or w"at part "at" "e t"at believet"with an 'infidel' Andw"at agreement "at" t"e temple ofGod wit" idols' 1) De not conformed to t"is u'orld.2) A manthat is an "eretic, after t"e first and second admonition re-ject.3) Come out from t"em, and be ye separate, sait" t"eLord. ) On the contrary, it is the duty of a loyal subject ofChrist to be a good soldier of Jesus Christ,5) to war a goodwarfare,8) to fig"t a good fig"t,7) against the flesh, theworld, and the devil, all the enemies of Christ and of hiskingdom. For the church of Christ on earth is a churchmilitant,8) until we shall say with St. Paul, I have foug"t agood f igkl,l "ave finis"ed my course, I "ave kept t"e fait":hencefort" t"ere is laid up for me a crown of ng"teousness,which t"e Lord, the ng"teous judge, s"all give me at t"atday: and not unto me only, but unto all them also t"at lovehis appeanng.9) This is our hope: T"e Lord shall deNverme from every evil work, and will preseroe me unto hisHEAVENLY KINGDOM.

    This "heavenly kingdom" is Christ's kingdom ofglory,in which Christ the God-man forever reigns over angels andarchangels and the glorified elect, the church triumphant,and his subjects forever do him homage and serve him inperfect obedience, praise and adore him, their Savior andtheir King. In the kingdom of glory, as in the kingdom ofpower and grace, Christ is king in an official capacity i hiskinghood is not identical with his divinity. He is the Kingof glory by appointment, and not only in his state of exaltation, but from the time of his incarnation. I appointunto you a kingdom, as my Father Itat" appo'inted unto

    1) 2 Cor. 6, 14-16. 2) Rom. 12, 2. 3) Tit. 3, 10.4) 2 Cor. 6, 17. 5) 2 Tim. 2, 3. 6) 1 Tim. I, 18.7) 1 Tim. 6, l2. 2 Tim. 4, 7.8) Eph. 6, 10. 11. 1 John 5, 4. John IS, 18-21.9) 2 Tim. 4, 7 f.

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    276 CBRISTOLOGY.me, he said in the days of his humilitYi 1) and when he wascradled in a manger, the heavenly host were his subjectsand chanted his cradle song of glory to God in tile ""gllesl,and on earth peace, good will toward men. l ) Paradise onhigh was his kingdom on the day of his deepest humility,when the robber by his side prayed, Lord, rememiJer mewhen thou com est into thy kingdom, and he replied, this dayshalt thou be with me in paradise.B) Yet, as Christ, thoughthe King of glory by birth, entered into his glory,) tile glorythat should follow after his sufferings,li) so also Christ's subjects enter into the kingdom of God through much tribulation,') though they are already in the kingdom of God.Thus it is scriptural to distinguish between these differentphases of Christ's kingdom, though the kingdom is one asthe King is one. Our conversation is in heaven 7) even now ibut it doth 1Iot yet appear what we shall be.8) But w u .Christ, who is our life, shall appear, then s"all we alsoappear in glory. I) Now Christ is with us alway i10) then weshall ever be wit" t"e Lord 11) Now we are the children of Godby faith i12) and walk by faith, not by sighl,13) then we s"allsee "im as he is.U ) Now we know -in part, and we prophesyin part. But when that which is peifeci is come, t"en t"atwhich is -in part shall be done away. 111) Now we see throllgAa glass darkly, bllt then, face to face"') Now the Lordknowelh them thai are ""S,17) Ihen we shall know even as weare known,lB) and being with him where he is, we shalllJe-hold his glory 10) and see Ius face. 30) Into that state of per-

    1) Luke 22, 29. 2) Luke 2, 14.3) Luke 23, 42. 43. 4) Luke 24, 26.5) 1 Pet. I, 11. 6) Acts 14, 22. Cf. 2 Pet. I, 11.7) PhD. 3, 20. 8) 1 John 3, 2.9) Col. 3, 3. 10) Matt. 28, 20.11) 1 Then. 4, 17. John 17, 24. Phil. I, 23.12) Gal. 3, 26. . 13) 2 Cor. S, 7.14) 1 John 3, 2. Cf. Rev. 22, 4. Job 19, 26. Matt. S, 8.

    IS) 1 Cor. 13, 10. 16) 1 Cor. 13, 12. 17) 2 Tim. 2, 19.18) 1 Cor. 13, 12. 19) John 17, 24. 20) Rev. 22, 4.

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    CHRISTOLOGY. 277fection and glory with Christ we enter, according to thesoul, in the hour of death. For this reason we "ave adesire to depart, and to be wit" C"rist,1) knowing that tobe absent from t"e body is to be present wit" t"e Lord,')with Christ in Pamdise.3) But the kingdom of glory will befully consummated when, after the resurrection of the dead,t"e Kt."ng skall say unto t"em on kis rigkt "and, Come, yebJessed ofmy Fatker, ':nken"t tke k':ngdom prepared for youfrom tke foundation of tke world, and the righteous shallgo, body and soul, t."nto life eternal.') Among the subjectsof that kingdom of glory there will be various degrees ofglory.6) But all the glory of the righteous will redound tothe glory of their King.G) A. G.

    1) Phil. I, 23.2) 2 Cor. 5, 8. Cf. Acts 7, 59. Eeet. 12, 7.3) Luke 23, 43.4) Matt. 25, 34. 46.5) 1 Cor. IS, 41 f. Rom. 2, 6 f. 10.6) Rev. 4, 10. 11; S,8-12.