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Climate change & biodiversity and · PDF fileClimate change & biodiversity and ecosystems ... (terrestrial, aquatic, ... and as a habitat hosting a wealth of biodiversity of organisms

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    Climate change & biodiversity and ecosystems

    cientific studies conducted over the recent decadesas widely covered in the latest IPCC reporthave revealed modifications

    in the range, seasonal activities, migratory movements, abundance and interspecies interactions in many terrestrial, freshwater and marine species as a result of climate change presently under way. The nature and extent of future disruptions are hard to foresee because of the limited time scale within which they occur, the diverse range of biological responses, as well as the complexity of species-species and species-environment interactions. One certainty is that these phenomena are unprecedented within such a short period in the Earths history.

    Acquiring knowledge on the future vulnerability, exposure and response capacity of natural systems interlinked with societies is a major challenge for science due to the large number of factors involved and their complex interactions. The issues are very broadly addressed by research teams working in Languedoc-Roussillon (France) through multidisciplinary studies on changes taking place in the living world, on the evolution of biodiversity and ecosystems, and on adaptations to climate changeall of this on different temporal (short- to long-term), spatial and life (genome to ecosystem) scales.

    This research concerns both model organisms and the specificities of Mediterranean and tropical environments. It is partially supported by established observatories (in terrestrial and marine environments) and leading-edge research platforms (Ecotron, MEDIMEER, European Marine Biological Resource Centre).

    This chapter provides an overview of the work of regional research units that are studying the impact of climate change on continental and marine ecosystems from various standpoints.

    The research seeks to gain insight into the dynamics and functioning of biodiversity (through field monitoring, with the support of OSU OREME, and experiments in controlled conditions, combined with theoretical and modelling approaches). They also aim to foresee the biological impacts of global change (via scenarios), anticipate changes in ecosystem services and identify tailored management strategies for species and the environment.

    Philippe Jarne (UMR CEFE) & Philippe Lebaron (OOB)

    S

    From Climate Change: impact and adaptation - Les Dossiers d'Agropolis International - March 2015 - 88 pages

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    Biodiversity and continental ecosystems

    Main teamsEuropean Ecotron of Montpellier

    (CNRS)7 scientists

    LabEx CeMEBCentre Mditerranen de

    lEnvironnement et de la Biodiversit(UM/UPVM/Montpellier SupAgro/CNRS/IRD/

    INRA/CIRAD/EPHE/Inrap/UNmes)630 scientists

    OSU OREMEObservatoire de Recherche

    Mditerranen de lEnvironnement(UM/CNRS/IRD)

    10 scientists

    UMR AMAP Botany and Computational

    Plant Architecture(CIRAD/CNRS/INRA/IRD/UM)

    54 scientists

    UMR CEFECentre for Functional

    and Evolutionary Ecology(CNRS/UM/UPVM/EPHE/

    Montpellier SupAgro/IRD/INRA)86 scientists

    continued on page 31

    substantial amount of the research conducted on biodiversity and continental ecosystems is pooled within LabEx CeMEB. The research approaches implemented draw from a broad range of

    disciplines (ecology, population biology, botany, genetics, physiology, computer science, etc.). The aim is to study ecosystem dynamics and responses to climate change in natural and pseudo-natural environmentsas well exemplified by research carried out at the Experimental Site of Puchabon and in the low wetlands of the Ain river valley (France). Studies are also carried out in controlled environments, e.g. in enclosed chambers at Ecotron, greenhouses or animal research facilities. These approaches are also focused on species adaptation mechanisms to their environment from genotypic, phenotypic and biogeographical viewpoints. This includes, for instance, simulation of the range of several tree species in relation to climate change forecasts (EvoRange project).

    The studies concern microorganisms, plants and animals in all ecosystems (terrestrial, aquatic, soil) from the Equator to the two poles, with emphasis on Mediterranean and tropical ecosystems. These are investigated regarding their relationship with societies in order to identify tailored management strategies (e.g. REDD and INFORMED projects). Species and their communities are studied in terms of their diversity, structure, organization and functioning. Mathematical and computer representations of organs, plants, populations, landscapes and processes are developed for analysis, prediction and simulation. Soils are the focus of special attention as a nutrient substrate for plants and as a habitat hosting a wealth of biodiversity of organisms essential for biogeochemical cycles. Ecological engineering methods based, for instance, on plant-microorganism symbiosis, and targeted for restoring degraded environments, are also studied.

    One of the communitys strong features is that human-environment relationships are explicitly taken into account through combined human and social science approaches. This includes studies on ecosystem services and assessments of the capacities of ecosystems as carbon sources or sinks with a view to mitigating the effects of increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

    Sophie Boutin (LabEx CeMEB) & Philippe Jarne (UMR CEFE)

    A

    From Climate Change: impact and adaptation - Les Dossiers d'Agropolis International - March 2015 - 88 pages

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    Knowledge sharing and transfer on biodiversity and ecosystems in a global change setting

    Accredited as an Excellence Laboratory (LabEx) by the ANR Investissement dAvenir 2011-2019 programme, the Centre Mditerranen de lEnvironnement et de la Biodiversit (LabEx CeMEB; headed by UM, UPVM, Montpellier SupAgro, CNRS, IRD, INRA, CIRAD, EPHE, INRAP, UNmes) is a federative structure grouping eight research units (AMAP, CBGP, CEFE, Eco&Sols, Ecotron, ISEM, LAMETA, MIVEGEC).

    CeMEB draws up common strategies on its research areas in close collaboration with local and regional partners, including the Observatoire des sciences de lunivers (OSU) OREME, DiPEE de Montpellier, the Comit technique dtablissement (CTE) B3E of the Montpellier University and other LabEx*. It also undertakes research support missions (PhD, postdoctoral), scientific coordination (organization

    The LabEx CeMEB project proposes: to set up a centre of biodiversity

    expertise and knowledge to meet growing world demand for interventions by the research community on biodiversity issues for schools, the general public and in more specialized areas. Another aim is to enhance the expertise and support capacities to benefit various stakeholders such as decision makers, planners, managers and public authorities

    to create new Bachelors and Masters training courses, and to open PhD courses on management and the economic environment so as to facilitate their vocational integration.

    * DiPEE: Dispositifs de Partenariat en cologie et Environnement; B3E: Biologie cologie volution Environnement.

    and financing of workshops, meetings and participatory science programmes), training (public professionals, teachers and future secondary school teachers, etc.), knowledge transfer and development (ecology and biodiversity web portal, participation in the Assises de la Biodiversit 2014 conference, etc.).

    LabEx CeMEB supports research in the following areas: biodiversity, ecology and

    evolutionary biology dynamics functional role of biodiversity and

    ecosystem services health-environment socioeconomics of the

    environment biological impacts of global change.

    The objectives are: to understand biodiversity

    dynamics and functioning by combining observations, experimentations and modelling

    to predict the biological impacts of global change via scenarios

    to anticipate changes in ecological services and human societies.

    Vegetative bud burst and blossoming of female larch flowers, phenological stages monitored at the Observatoire des saisons (www.obs-saisons.fr).Phenological eventsflexible in response to environmental conditions and able to quickly adapt under the effects of global warmingare major adaptive traits in trees (which have a long generation time). This explains a substantial part of their geographical distribution.

    E. Gritti

    From Climate Change: impact and adaptation - Les Dossiers d'Agropolis International - March 2015 - 88 pages

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    This physiological, morphological and even phenological plasticity is called adaptive if it can maintain or increase the selective value in an environmental change setting. The limitations and costs of this plasticity, especially under multitrophic interaction conditions, are thus crucial in the capacity of organisms to adapt to climate change.

    Biogeographical adaptation concerns species that are able to migrate or disperse to bioclimatic areas that are more conducive to their survival. The capacity of organisms to spread varies markedly between species and depends on the biogeographical setting within their range. Considering how rapidly climate change is currently taking place and the extent of fragmentation of natural areas by human activities, the movement capacity of populations is a major issue re

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