CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (“ifâ€‌ Sentences) CONDITIONAL is a structure used for talking about possibilities in ... 2nd CONDITIONAL is a structure used for talking about unreal

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  • Octavio Morales

    Octavio Morales

  • CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (if Sentences)

    EXPRESSING CAUSE AND EFFECT

    There are 4 main types of if sentences in English, often called conditional sentences. These sentences are in two halves (clauses):

    the if part (if clause) the other part where you can use words such as can, will, may, might, could and would (main clause)

    ZERO CONDITIONAL is a structure used for talking about general truths -- things which always happen under certain conditions (note that most zero conditional sentences will mean the same thing if "when" is used instead of "if"). The zero conditional is used to talk about things which are always true -- scientific facts, general truths, and so on.

    1st CONDITIONAL is a structure used for talking about possibilities in the present or in the future. The first conditional is used to talk about things which are possible in the present or the future -- things which may happen.

    2nd CONDITIONAL is a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the present or in the future. The second conditional is used to talk about things which are unreal (not true or not possible) in the present or the future -- things which don't or won't happen.

    if clause main clauseIf + Present Simple Present Simple

    If you heat the water to 100 degrees,

    it boils.

    if clause main clauseIf + Present Simple Future Simple, can, may

    If you study hard, you will pass the test.

    if clause main clause

    If + Past Simple would, could, mightIf I had a million dollars, I would buy a big house.

    ASSUMPTION IN PRESENT

  • 3rd CONDITIONAL is a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the past. The third conditional is used to talk about things which DID NOT HAPPEN in the past. If your native language does not have a similar construction, you may find this a little strange, but it can be very useful. It is often used to express criticism or regret.

    If the "if" clause comes first, a comma is usually used. If the "if" clause comes second, there is no need for a comma

    I failed the exam, because I didnt study hard enough.

    Water boils if you heat it to 100 degrees.

    if clause main clause

    If + Past Perfect would/could/might have + Past Participle

    If I had studied harder, I would have passed the exam.

    ASSUMPTION IN THE PAST

  • The Zero Conditional

    Make zero conditionals:

    For example:

    (not / rain / the flowers / die) If it doesnt rain, the flowers die.

    1. (I / wake up late / I / be late for work)

    2. (my husband / cook / he / burn the food)

    3. (Julie / not wear a hat / she / get sunstroke)

    4. (children / not eat well / they / not be healthy)

    5. (you / mix water and electricity / you / get a shock)

    6. (people / eat / too many sweets / they / get fat)

    7. (you / smoke / you / get yellow fingers)

    8. (children / play outside / they / not get overweight)

    9. (you / heat ice / it / melt)

    10.(I / speak to John / he / get annoyed)

  • For example:he / get a headache / he / use the computer too much He gets a headache if he uses the computer too much.

    11.(I / feel good the next day / I / go to bed early)

    12.(lots of people / come / Jenny / have a party)

    13.(she / buy expensive clothes / she / go shopping)

    14.(my daughter / pass her exams / she / work hard)

    15.(David / be sick / he / drink milk)

    16.(the river / freeze / it / be very cold)

    17.(I / like to visit the museums / I / be in a new city)

    18.(I / cycle to work / the weather / be fine)

    19.(my flatmate / clean it really well / she / clean the house)

    20.(everybody / be grumpy / it / rain a lot)

  • Octavio Morales

    Octavio Morales

    Octavio Morales

    Octavio Morales

  • EXERCISE 1 1. Review: conditional sentences. (Charts 20-1 + 20-4) Directions: Complete the sentences with the verbs in parentheses.

    1. You should tell your father exactly what happened. If I (be) YOU, I (tell) him the truth as soon as possible.

    2. If I (have) my camera with me yesterday, I (take) a picture of Alex standing on his head.

    3. I'm almost ready to plant my garden. I have a lot of seeds. Maybe I have more than I need. If I (have) more seeds than I need, I (give)

    some to my neighbor.

    4. George has only two pairs of socks. If he (have) more than two pairs of socks, he (have to, not) wash his socks so often.

    5. The cowboy pulled his gun to shoot at the rattlesnake, but he was too late. If he (be) quicker to pull the trigger, the snake (bite, not)

    him on the foot. It's a good thing he was wearing heavy leather boots.

    6 . What (we, use) to look at ourselves when we comb our hair if we (have, not) mirrors?

    7. It's been a long drought. It hasn't rained for over a month. If it (rain, not) soon, a lot of crops (die) . If the

    crops (die) , many people (go) hungry this coming winter.

    8. According to one scientific theory, an asteroid collided with the earth millions of years ago, causing great changes in the earth's climate. Some scientists believe that if this asteroid (collide, not) with the earth, the dinosaurs (become, not) extinct. Can you imagine what the world (be) Iike today if dinosaurs (exist, stiII)

    ? Do you think it (be) possible for dinosaurs and human beings to coexist on the same planet?

    Conditional Sentences and Wishes 421

  • Octavio Morales

    Octavio Morales

    Octavio Morales

    Octavio Morales

    Octavio Morales

    Octavio Morales

    Octavio Morales