Cultural Diversity

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Cultural Diversity. Olga Usynska. Definition of terms. Cultural diversity is the differences among people that result from ethic, racial and cultural variables. Definition of terms. What is Culture? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Cultural Diversity Olga Usynska

  • Definition of termsCultural diversity is the differences among people that result from ethic, racial and cultural variables

  • Definition of termsWhat is Culture? - shared lifestyle, values, beliefs, ideals and behavior of a particular group.Picture it as a luggage that each of us carries around for our lifetime. It is sum of beliefs, practices, habits, likes, dislikes, norms, customs, rituals and so forth that we learned from our families during the years of socialization. In turn, we transmit cultural luggage to our children.

  • Dominant culture and minoritiesDominant culture is the group, whose values prevail within a societyMinority group is composed of an ethnic, racial, or religious group that constitutes less than a numerical majority of the population

  • The strength and greatness of America lies in the diversity of its peopleThe United States, already one of the most diverse societies in the world, is becoming increasingly multicultural and multilingualLester, 1998

  • Growing Diversity in America

    During the Past 20 yearsWhite population increased 10%African American population increased 30%Native American population increased 58 %Hispanic population increased 125%

  • Projected DemographicsIn 2020 the population of African-Americans is predicted to double and that of Asian-Americans and Hispanic/Latinos to tripleBy the year 2050, white Americans share of the total population will decline from 75% to under 50%

  • Multiculturalism in United StatesThe dominant culture is composed of white middle-class Protestants of European ancestryThe minorities are Native Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans

  • In California Population of 38 Million 1/3 of the population is of Hispanic origin Over 10% Asian Over 4% more than one race Nearly 17% identify as Other race

    But In many localities so-called minorities are now, in fact, the majority(ANA, 1998)

  • In California1 in 4 are foreign born, 37% of these entered the US after 1990 Nearly 40% of the population over the age of 5 speaks a language other than English at home.

  • Food preferences and related effects on health African Americans

  • Food preferences and related effects on health Asian Americans

  • Food preferences and related effects on health Hispanic Americans

  • Food preferences and related effects on health Native Americans

  • Effects of biologic variations on selected drugs

    Isoniazid (drug used to treat tuberculosis) is rapidly metabolized, thus becoming inactive quickly; occurs in approximately 60% of population. An enzyme deficiency interferes with metabolism of primaquine (used to treat malaria); occurs in approximately 35% of population. Antihypertensive drugs (e.g., propranolol) need to be administered in higher doses to produce same effects as in European AmericansAfrican Americans

  • Effects of biologic variations on selected drugs

    Isoniazid (drug used to treat tuberculosis) is rapidly metabolized, thus becoming inactive quickly; occurs in approximately 85%-90% of population. Rapid metabolism of alcohol results in excessive facial flushing and other vasomotor symptoms.

    Asian Americans

  • Effects of biologic variations on selected drugs

    Chinese men need only about half as much propranolol (antihypertensive drug) as European American men. Asian people need smaller doses of alprazolam (antianxiety drug) to achieve same blood levels as their European American counterparts; the drug is also metabolized more slowly (remains in the bloodstream longer) in Asian men.

    Asian Americans

  • Effects of biologic variations on selected drugs

    Due to liver enzyme differences, caffeine is metabolized and excreted faster than by people of other cultural groups.European Americans

  • Effects of biologic variations on selected drugs

    Isoniazid (drug used to treat tuberculosis) is rapidly metabolized, thus becoming inactive quickly; occurs in approximately 60%-90% of population.

    Rapid metabolism of alcohol results in excessive facial flushing and other vasomotor symptoms.Native Americans

  • Ethnic Health Disparities

    African AmericansHighest death rate from colon and rectal cancer of any ethnic group in the U.S.African Am women, diagnosed with breast cancer, have a 71% survival rate vs. an 86% rate for white women.

  • Ethnic Health DisparitiesNative Americans2-3 times more likely to have diabetes mellitus that the general populationHigher than average mortality rates associated with heart disease, TB, suicide, pneumonia, influenza, homicide, and alcoholism

  • Differing Health Belief SystemMagicoreligious HBS: people believe that supernatural forces influence health and illness

    Holistic Belief System: the forces of nature must be kept in natural balance and harmony

    Scientific or Biomedical HBS: health and illness are controlled by a series of physical and biomedical process that can be analyzed and manipulated by humans. Disease and illness are caused by microorganism or malfunction of body

  • Factors that influence Health Beliefs and Behaviors of Culturally Diverse Ind/GrpTraditional health and illness practices:Natural folk medicineMagico-religious medicineUse of foodReligious practiciesUse of HealersSocial organizations refers to family unit; environment in which people grow up and live.Description of family in this cultural groupGender and age roles that affect choice of whom to communicate

  • Folk medicine: healers and practices Elderly women healers "Community Mother" or "Granny" "Root doctor" Voodoo healer ("Mambo" or "oungan") SpiritualistHerbs, rootsPoultices Oils Religious healing through rituals, (e.g., laying on of hands) Talismans are worn around the wrist or neck, or carried in a pouch to ward off disease African Americans

  • Folk medicine: healers and practices Herbalist PhysicianUse of hot and cold foodsHerbs (e.g., ginseng root, which is used as a restorative potion)SoupsCupping, pinching, and rubbing MeditationAcupunctureAcupressureApplication of tiger balm (a salve) to relieve muscular painAsian Americans

  • Folk medicine: healers and practices NursePhysicianExercise Medication (prescribed and over-the-counter) Modified diets Amulets Religious healing rituals

    European Americans

  • Folk medicine: healers and practices Curandero combinaiton of prayers, herbs, and other rituals to treat traditional illnesses, especially in children Espiritualista (spiritualist) - foretelling of future and interpretation of dreams, combination of prayers, herbs, potions, amulets for curing illnesses, including witchcraft)Yerbero (herbalist) consultation for herbal treatment of traditional ilnessesSobadora (bonesetters) massage and manipulation of bones and joints used to treat a variety of ailments, including musculoskeletal conditionParteras (lay midwifes) assisting for women in childbirth and newborn care Hispanic Americans

  • Cultural Diversity and Health CareWe All Have It!Obvious Manifestations:ReligionEthnicity National Origin (language)Gender

  • Cultural Diversity and Health CareLess Obvious Manifestations:AgeEducationEducational StatusMobility (including handicaps)

  • EthnicitySense of identification of a collective cultural groupCharacteristic of an ethnic group:Common languageSame food preferencesShared traditionsReligionShared values, symbols, literature, folklore, music

  • AFRICAN-AMERICANS CommunicationLanguages include English and Black EnglishHead nodding does not necessarily mean agreementDirect eye contact is often viewed as being rudeNonverbal communication is very importantIt is considered to be intrusive to ask personal questions of someone on initial contact or meeting

  • AFRICAN-AMERICANS Time orientation and spaceOriented more to the present than the futureClose personal space is importantTouching another's hair is sometimes viewed as offensive

  • AFRICAN-AMERICANS Social rolesLarge extended-family networks are importantMany single-parent, female-headed householdsReligion is usually Protestant (Baptist)Strong church affiliation with community is importantSocial organizations are strong within com munities

  • AFRICAN-AMERICANS Health and illnessHarmony with natureNo separation of body, mind, and spiritIllness is a disharmonious state that may be caused by demons or spiritsIllness can be prevented by nutritious meals, rest and cleanliness

  • AFRICAN-AMERICANS Health risksSickle cell anemiaHypertensionCoronary heart diseaseCancer (especially stomach and esophageal)Lactose intoleranceCoccidioidomycosis

  • AFRICAN-AMERICANS ImplementationAvoid stereotypingDo not label Black English as an unacceptable form of languageClarify meaning of client's verbal and nonverbal behaviorBe flexible and avoid rigidity in scheduling careEncourage involvement with familyA folk healer or herbalist may be consulted before an individual seeks medical treatment

  • ASIAN-AMERICANS CommunicationLanguages include Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, EnglishSilence is valuedEye contact is considered rudeCriticism or disagreement is not expressed verballyHead nodding does not necessarily mean agreementThe word "no" is interpreted as disrespect for others

  • ASIAN-AMERICANS Time orientation and space Oriented more to presentSocial distance is importantUsually do not touch others during conversationTouching is unacceptable with members of oppo site sexThe head is considered to be sacred; therefore touchin