Data-Driven Business Intelligence Systems: Part II ?· Data-Driven Business Intelligence Systems: Part…

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IMS3001 BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS SEM 1 , 2004

DataData--Driven Business Driven Business Intelligence Systems: Part IIIntelligence Systems: Part II

Week 6Dr. Jocelyn San Pedro

School of Information Management & Systems

Monash University

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Lecture OutlineLecture OutlineOn-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP)Executive Information Systems (EIS)EIS Development Framework

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Learning ObjectivesLearning ObjectivesAt the end of this lecture, the students will

Have understanding of On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) and Executive Information SystemsHave understanding of executive information needsHave knowledge of EIS development

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On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP)

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OnOn--Line Analytical ProcessingLine Analytical ProcessingTerm coined by Codd to highlight differences between transactional processing and analytical processing

Transactional processing of operational data not suitable for answering managerial questions

Provides conceptual and intuitive modelProvides data retrieval at the speed of thoughtFASMI Test by Pendse (2003)12 Rules by Codd, Codd & Salley (1993)OLAP Council

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OnOn--Line Analytical ProcessingLine Analytical Processing

Attributes

Historical, current, projected

AggregateConsiderableUser-definedAnalyse

OLAP OLTPCharacteristics

CurrentTime

RecordsOrientation

DetailLevel of detailLittleData transactionUnchangingScreen formatUpdateOperation

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OnOn--Line Analytical ProcessingLine Analytical ProcessingFASMI Test by Pendse (2003)

FastAnalysisSharedMultidimensional Information

http://www.olapreprt.com/fasmi.htm

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OnOn--Line Analytical ProcessingLine Analytical Processing

Flexible reportingClient/server architecture

Unlimited dimensions, aggregationGeneric dimensionality

Intuitive data manipulationConsistent reporting

Cross-dimensional operationsAccessibleMulti-user supportTransparent to the userDynamic sparse matrix handlingMultidimensional view

12 OLAP Rules by Codd, Codd & Salley (1993)

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OnOn--Line Analytical ProcessingLine Analytical ProcessingStorage paradigms to support OLAP

Desktop OLAP (DOLAP) desktop filesRelational OLAP (OLAP) relational database serversMultidimensional OLAP (MOLAP) multidimensional database servers

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OnOn--Line Analytical ProcessingLine Analytical Processing

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OnOn--Line Analytical ProcessingLine Analytical Processing

Gray and Watson (1998)

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OnOn--Line Analytical ProcessingLine Analytical ProcessingRepresentative OLAP / Multidimensional Analysis

PackagesBrioQuery (Brio Technology Inc.)Business Objects (Business Objects Inc.)Decision Web (Comshare Inc.)DataFountain (Dimensional Insight Inc.)DSS Web (MicroStrategy Inc.)Focus Fusion (Information Builders Inc.)InfoBeacon Web (Platinum Technology Inc.)Oracle xpress Server (Oracle Corporation)Pilot Internet Publisher (Pilot Software Inc.)Cognos Reportnet (Cognos)

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OnOn--Line Analytical ProcessingLine Analytical Processing

Cognos ReportNet

IMS3001 BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS SEM 1 , 2004 14Hypherions Business Performance Management

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Executive Information Systems (EIS)

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Executive Information SystemsExecutive Information SystemsIntended to provide current and appropriate information to support executive decision makingEmphasis is on graphical displays, easy-to-use interface Designed to provide reports or briefing books to top-level executiveStrong reporting and drill-down capabilities

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Executive Information SystemsExecutive Information SystemsShared decision support systemsCan only support recurring information requirementsVery high profileRelatively expensive

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Executive Information SystemsExecutive Information SystemsTailored to individual executive usersDesigned to be easy to operate & require little or no trainingFocussed on supporting upper-level management decisionsCan present info in graphical, tabular & text Provides access to info from broad range of internal & external sourcesProvides tools to elicit, extract, filter, & track critical informationProvides a wide range of reports including status reporting, exception reporting, trend analysis, drill down investigation, & ad hoc queries

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Executive Information SystemsExecutive Information SystemsWhat an EIS is NOT

It is not a substitute for other computer-based systems. The EIS actually feeds off these systems.It does not turn the executive suite into a haven for computer techies.It should be viewed by senior management as a trusted assistant who can be called on when and where necessary.

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Executive Information SystemsExecutive Information SystemsWhy Are Top Executives So Different?

They are enterprise-oriented in thinkingThe possess the broadest span of controlThey are responsible for establishing policyThey represent the organization to the external environmentTheir actions have considerable financial and human consequences

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Executive Information SystemsExecutive Information SystemsWhy Are Top Executives So Different?

They are enterprise-oriented in thinkingThe possess the broadest span of controlThey are responsible for establishing policyThey represent the organization to the external environmentTheir actions have considerable financial and human consequences

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Executive Information SystemsExecutive Information Systems

Executive Information NeedsDisturbance management may require around-the-clock attention.Entrepreneurial activities require the executive to predict changes in the environment.Resource allocation tasks require the manager to choose when andwhere the limited resources are deployed.Negotiation requires up-to-the-minute info to help build consensus.

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Executive Information SystemsExecutive Information Systems

Handling Disturbances, 42%

Entrepreneurial Activites, 32%

Resource Allocation, 17%

Negotiation, 3%

Other, 6%

Frequency of Executive Activities

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Executive Information SystemsExecutive Information Systems

Methods for Determining Information NeedsRockart identified five basic methods for determining

information needs:By-Product MethodNull MethodKey Indicator MethodTotal Study MethodCritical Success Factors Method

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Executive Information SystemsExecutive Information SystemsCritical success factors

Concentrate on the most important information requirementsCommon techniqueCritical success factors (CSFs) are the few key areas where things must go right in order to achieve objectives and goalsCritical failure factors (CFFs) are the factors whose existence or lack of existence can contribute to failure

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Executive Information SystemsExecutive Information SystemsKey Performance Indicators

How do you know how well you are doing against your CSFs? KPIsA KPI is a measurement that tells us how we are performing in regard to a particular CSF.A single CSF may have multiple KPIsAn EIS is a useful tool for assessing KPIs, and therefore for understanding CSFs.By concentrating on these critical factors, we have a starting point for systems analysis we know that CSFs and their KPIs are going to be mandatory information requirements.Provides structure for requirements elicitation interviews.

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Executive Information SystemsExecutive Information SystemsGeneral CSF interview approach

Explanation of CSF interview objectivesInterviewee is asked to:

Describe organisational mission and roleDiscuss goals

CSFs are developedCSFs priorities are determinedMeasures are developed (KPIs)

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Executive Information SystemsExecutive Information SystemsCSFsCSFs & & KPIsKPIs in an EISin an EIS

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External Data

Data Cubes

The EIS

Executive Workstation

The Data

Warehouse

OLAP

From HereTo Here

Executive Information SystemsExecutive Information Systems

Report Templates

Relationship of OLAP to EIS ArchitectureRelationship of OLAP to EIS Architecture

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Executive Information SystemsExecutive Information Systems

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Executive Information SystemsExecutive Information Systems

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EIS Development Framework

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An EIS Development FrameworkAn EIS Development FrameworkWatson, et al suggest a framework with three components:

1. Structural perspective: focus is on people and data as they relate to the EIS.

2. Development process: the dynamics and interactions are identified.

3. User-system dialog: contains an action language for processing the commands.

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An EIS Development FrameworkAn EIS Development FrameworkSome EIS Limitations and Pitfalls to Avoid

Cost: a 1991 survey showed an average development cost of $365,000 with annual operating costs of $200,000. Technological limitations: the EIS needs to be seamlessly integrated into the companys current IT architecture, so it is a formidable challenge to the designer.Organizational limitations: the organizational structure might not be right.

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An EIS Development FrameworkAn EIS Development FrameworkOrganizational Limitations

Agendas and time biases: the EIS represents only part of executives total agenda, and it may become easy to be overly reliant on it.Managerial synchronization: heavy reliance on the timely, ad-hoc, EIS reports may disrupt stable, well-established reporting cycles.Destabilization: fast EIS response may cause the executive to react too swiftly, leading to less stability in the organization.

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An EIS Development FrameworkAn EIS Development FrameworkFailure is not an Acceptable AlternativeSome factors that contribute to EIS failure:

Lack of management supportPolitical problemsDeveloper failuresTechnology failuresCostsTime

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An EIS Development FrameworkAn EIS Development FrameworkThe Future of Executive Decision Making and the

EIS Several conditions will merge to transform the technology.

Some are easy to predict, some not. Two that we can foresee are:

Increased comfort with computing technology in the executive suite will make innovations more readily accepted.Broadening of executive responsibilities will broaden the demand for information.

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An EIS Development FrameworkAn EIS Development Framework

The EIS of Tomorrow The intelligent EIS: advances in AI technology will be deployed in the EIS The multimedia EIS: multimedia databases will allow future integration of text, voice and imageThe informed EIS: future EISs will make wider use of data external to the companyThe connected EIS: high-bandwidth communication allows greater interconnectivity

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ReferencesReferencesCodd, E.F., Codd, S.B., & Salley, C.T. (1993). Providing OLAP (On-line Analytical Processing) to User-Analysts: An IT Mandate. E. F. Codd & Associates at .Gray P. and Watson, H. (1998) Decision Support in the Data Warehouse, Prentice Hall. Marakas, G.M. (2002). Decision support systems in the 21st Century. 2nd Ed, Prentice Hall Pendse, N. (2003) What is OLAP? The OLAP Report, http://www.olapreprt.com/fasmi.htmVitt, E., Luckevich, M. and Misner, S. (2002) Business Intelligence, Microsoft Corporation.

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