DEVELOPMENT & DISASTERS (FOCUS ON WATER) A Bahamian Perspective Cyprian A. Gibson Civil Engineer, M.B.A., C.ENG., M.I.C.E. Water & Sewerage Corporation

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DEVELOPMENT & DISASTERS (FOCUS ON WATER) A Bahamian Perspective Cyprian A. Gibson Civil Engineer, M.B.A., C.ENG., M.I.C.E. Water & Sewerage Corporation Nassau Bahamas Slide 2 OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION BACKGROUND Caribbean & Utilities THE BAHAMAS, WSC NATIONAL DISASTER COMMITTE WSC DISASTER PLAN CASE STUDIES ISSUES/LESSONS LEARNT Q&A Slide 3 BACKGROUND - THE CARIBBEAN General Geographic Region, Climates, etc Similar Histories, Governments, Infrastructure, and Philosophies that have grown out of colonialism. Individually isolated, but strategically placed to tap into the global markets of North and South America. People have similar socio-economic and educational backgrounds, while yet very diverse. S mall economies built on agriculture, light manufacturing, tourism and banking. THESE AFFECT PREPAREDNESS/RESPONSE Slide 4 BACKGROUND - CARIBBEAN UTILITIES Cash Starved - Our water utilities are for the most part cash starved, and undercapitalized, and highly reliant on Governments Boards, Subsidies, etc Isolated from major suppliers (high shipping costs) Serve similar customers, with increasing quality expectations & Similar Levels of Training Similar Approach to Infrastructure Supplied from wherever we can get it International Lending Agencies Diverse in Technologies, Diverse in Operations, therefore requiring Appropriate Technology Focus on Survival v/s Long term Planning (Capacity) Collection, Treatment, Storage, Distribution, WW Slide 5 BACKGROUND THE COMMONWEALTH OF THE BAHAMAS ACHIPELLAGO - More than 700 Islands and Keys - Off the Coast of the Southern U.S. POPULATION OF 300,000 - Only 40 plus Islands with communities - More than 80% in New Providence & Grand Bahama TOURISM DRIVES ECONOMY - 60% of GDP 4 Million plus Visitors, Hotel Rooms Banking/Trust is second 400 plus PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY 2 Major Parties, 40 Electoral Seats Slide 6 WATER RESOURCES THE COMMONWEALTH OF THE BAHAMAS Geology Carbonate of Holocene and Pleistocene age Bahama mar Formed at sea level shaped by wind, water and waves in geological times, Bahama mar Hydrogeology Freshwater lenses float on seawater Elevations 80 % within 5 feet of mean sea level Slide 7 Water Resources of The Bahamas The groundwater resources of the Commonwealth comprise the fresh, brackish, saline and hypersaline waters found in the near and deep subsurface and in the lakes and ponds that intercept the surface. The freshwater resources occur as three-dimensional lens-shaped bodies, which overlies brackish and saline waters at depth. It is inappropriate to conceive of these Ghyben - Hertzberg lenses as occurring in subterranean lakes, rivers or ponds. Slide 8 THE WATER & SEWERAGE CORPORATION ESTABLISHED IN 1976 BY ACT OF PARLIAMENT Responsible statutory body for Water Supply and Sewerage Sector for: Development, Management, and Protection of National Water Resources;& provision of adequate supplies of suitable water for domestic and industry use, and the subsequent collection, treatment and disposal thereof STAFF OF 400, REVENUE OF $32Mn., EXPENSES $37Mn. US. 450 MILES MAINS, 6 INTERCONNECTED SITES - New Providence MANY SMALL AND DIVERSE SYSTEMS Family Islands AVERAGE WATER PRODUCTION - NASSAU (8 MIGD) 12 FAMILY ISLANDS (2 MIGD) 10 % SEWERAGE COVERAGE (90% Onsite Septic Systems) 7 Major Sewerage Facilities on New Providence only Primary & Secondary Treatment with Deep Well Disposal OTHER SECTOR PLAYERS HOTELS Primarily self served (Small R.O. & WWTP) OTHER UTILITIES Freeport, P. I. Utilities, NPDC PRIVATE WELL SUPPLIES, SEPTIC TANKS Slide 9 THE BAHAMAS & NATIONAL DISASTERS THE BAHAMAS NATIONAL DISASTER ORGANIZATION The Bahamas National Disaster Organization was established in April 1991 to replace the National Hurricane Committee (1971) and placed under the portfolio of the Office of the Prime Minister It was prompted by the devastation that was caused by hurricanes Gilbert and Hugo which highlighted the need for a national organization to assist the country in preparing for national disasters, be they be they from man-made or natural causes. STRUCTURE (Focus on Hurricanes) DISASTER ADVISORY COUNCIL Comprised of Members of Cabinet and Chaired by the Prime Minister DISASTER MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE Comprised of Senior Officials of Relevant Government & Emergency Services Health, Public Works, Ports (Air/Sea), Utilities, Police, RBDF 2 notable Private Institutions (Red Cross & Salvation Army) Chaired by the Secretary to the Cabinet DISASTER PREPAREDNESS OFFICE Located in Cabinet Office, and acting as a Secretariat with a Coordinator STANDING EMERGENCY SUB COMMITEES Public Awareness, Disaster Training, Family Islands, Relief/Supplies Emergency Communications, Shelters, Search & Rescue, Evacuation/Transportation, Damage Assessment, Response/Recovery Slide 10 DISASTER PREPAREDNESS THE WATER & SEWERAGE CORPORATION (FOCUS ON HURRICANES) WSC - A TYPICAL WATER UTILITY WELLFIELDS/SUPPLY SOURCE TREATMENT/STORAGE TANKS PUMPING STATIONS DISTRIBUTION MAINS (UNDERGROUND) SERVICE CONNECTIONS Plus TANKERING OPERATIONS SEWERAGE COLLECTION, TREATMENT, DISPOSAL MOST COMMON DISASTERS TO DATE HURRICANES & FOREST FIRES BAD WEATHER (BARGING) POSSIBLE UNION TAMPERING SHORT TERM Slide 11 DISASTER PREPAREDNESS THE WATER & SEWERAGE CORPORATION (MITIGATION MEASURES - HURRICANES) HURRICANE PREPAREDNESS PLAN WATER IS CRITICAL 1.INTRODUCTIONS/DEFINITIONS/WARNING SYSTEMS 2.PREPARATIONS FOR HURRICANE SEASON 3.ACTIONS FOR HURRICANE ALERT (60 HOURS) New Providence & Family Islands 4. ACTIONS FOR HURRICANE WATCH (36 HOURS) 5. ACTIONS FOR HURRICANE WARNING (24 HOURS) 6. ACTIONS DURING & IMMEDIATELY AFTER HURRICANE 7. COMPOSITION OF COMMITTEE 8. STATIONS TO BE PROTECTED 9. SCHEDULES OF STANDBY EQUIPMENT 10. SCHEDULES OF CONTACTS Slide 12 DISASTER PREPAREDNESS THE WATER & SEWERAGE CORPORATION MITIGATION MEASURES - HURRICANES SPECIFIC MITIGATION/PREPAREDNESS INITIAVES MAJOR HAZZARDS Rains, Flooding, Waves/Surges, Trees PREPARATIONS FOR HURRICANE SEASON Building Checks, Standby Equipment, Inventories, Volunteers, HQ ACTIONS FOR HURRICANE ALERTS & WATCHES (>24 HOURS) Fill Tanks, Public Announcements,Chlorine, Bulk Meter Readings ACTIONS FOR HURRICANE WARNING ( SIT TIGHT AFTERWOODS Inspect, assess, test, repair, commission Slide 13 DISASTER PREPAREDNESS THE WATER & SEWERAGE CORPORATION (CASE STUDY) HURRICANE FLOYD BACKGROUND September of 1999, Entire Bahamas (7 Islds.) IMPACTS (WSC) Power Loss, Leaks, Wellfields, Storage Tanks - Due to excessive winds, flooding, surges TOTAL LOST$880k NEW PROVIDENCE$400k FAMILY ISLANDS ANDROS$200k ABACO$80k ELEUTHERA$200k GRAND BAHAMA seawater intrusion CAT ISLAND (operations disrupted) AN SALVADOR (operations disrupted) Slide 14 Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide 17 Slide 18 Slide 19 Slide 20 Slide 21 Slide 22 Slide 23 Slide 24 Slide 25 DISASTER PREPAREDNESS THE WATER & SEWERAGE CORPORATION (CASE STUDY) HURRICANE FLOYD LONG TERM EFFECTS REQUIRED CORRECTIVE/CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS TOTAL$750k NEW PROVIDENCE$250k FAMILY ISLANDS ANDROS$100k ABACO$100k ELEUTHERA$250k GRAND BAHAMA (outside service area) SAN SALVADOR$50k Slide 26 HURRICANE FLOYD CASE STUDY LESSONS LEARNT Water is still critical to life!!! Hospitals, Drinking, Washing STANDBY POWER IS CRITICAL SEA DAMAGE/SURGES Water Resource, Tanks on Coast VULNERABILITY OF OTHER STRUCTURES (GLASS WINDOW BRIDGE, ROADS, ELECTRICITY) FULL STORAGE TANKS, CHLORINE RESERVES PROTECT WELLFIELDS COMMUNICATION ARE CRITICAL (LOCAL & NATIONAL) IMPROVED NATIONAL COORDINATION, LIST OF OFFICIALS NEED TO IMPROVE ON WSC PLANS EDUCATE & TRAIN CONSTANTLY (STAFF & PUBLIC) HURRICANES DAMAGE WEAK/ANTIQUATED WORKS MODERNIZATION/CAPACITY BUILDING (CAPITAL WORKS) Slide 27 QUESTION & ANSWERS ? Cyprian A. Gibson Civil Engineer, M.B.A., C.ENG., M.I.C.E. Water & Sewerage Corporation Nassau Bahamas DEVELOPMENT & DISASTERS (FOCUS ON WATER UTILITIES) A Bahamian Perspective DISCUSSIONS & FEEDBACK