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Developmental Psychology. Social Development 6.2. Learning Outcomes. General framework (applicable to all topics in the option) • To what extent do biological, cognitive and sociocultural factors influence human development? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Developmental Psychology

Devlopmental Psychology

Developmental PsychologySocial Development6.2Learning OutcomesGeneral framework (applicable to all topics in the option)

To what extent do biological, cognitive and sociocultural factors influence human development? Evaluate psychological research (that is, theories and/or studies) relevant to developmental psychology.

Learning OutcomesSocial development Examine attachment in childhood and its role in the subsequent formation of relationships. Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development. Define resilience. Discuss strategies to build resilience.

Examine attachment in childhood and its role in the subsequent formation of relationships

AttachmentJohn Bowlby 1907-1990Developed Attachment theoryStudied children from the WWII who had been separated from their parents.Found that many had emotional problems and linked this to separation from their mother.Believed that attachment was an innate pattern and helped infants to survive.Basic biological need.If deprivation permanent and irreversible damage

Internal Working ModelInfants develop working models of the world based on the development of a secure and attachment relationship with a parent or caregiver.In such a situation, the child develop aworking model of the world as safe and secure. Oterhwise negative working models (the world is dangerous, frightening)It will change and incorporate new ways.Internal Working ModelIf the child experiences love and affection, he or she come to see himself or herself as worthy of love and attention.

If they have experienced neglect and rejection they might develop a model of denial (or on the reality)

The Strange Situation Mary Ainsworth 1913-1999developed Bowlbys ideas and came up with how to test attachment theory empirically- called the strange situation paradigm

She was a student to BowlbyConducted research in Uganda (1967) and then in Baltimore (U 1971) studied children and mother interactions: resulted in SSC

The Strange SituationStudies the childs reaction to separation and reunion with the attachment figure (often the mother)The parent and child are alone in the roomThe child explores the room without parental participationA stranger enters the room, talks to the parent and approaches the childThe parent quickly leaves the roomThe parent returns and comforts the childTypes of attachmentType A avoidant (20% of the children)Type B Securely attached (70% of the children)Type C ambivalent (10 % of the children)Type D insecure-disorganised/disorganised attachment (came later 1986, by Main and Solomon)

The Strange Situation - Mary Ainsworth One example of a strange situation

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s608077NtNI

What is your attachment style?

http://www.web-research-design.net/cgi-bin/crq/crq.pl

This interactive survey takes about 5 minutes to complete. The questionnaire is designed to measure your 'attachment style'--the way you relate to others in the context of intimate relationships

Evaluation of the attachment theory and the strange situationEvaluate using:GenderCultureMethodEthics

Any thoughts?Read p. 197-199 if you need helpThe role of early attachment in the subsequent formation of relationshipsInternal working models continue throughout the lifespanRelationship between the experience of attachment in childhood and adult love relationships

Hazan and Shavers Love QuizRead the following statements and indicate which paragraph best describes your attitute to close relationships on page 200 (A, B or C)Hazan and Shavers Love Quizs research 1987Put in a newspaper and asked for volunteers to pick a box and to describe their parents parenting styles. 620 people answered (self-selected), 14-82 years old, mean age 36. 205 males and 415 females.Second sample of 108 college students.Hazan and Shavers Love Quizs researchResults:20% showed A (anxious-avoidant: unresponsive, rejecting)60% showed B (secure attachment: attentive and responsive)20% showed C (anxious- ambivalent: anxious, sometimes responsive)