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Disaster Risk Reduction LESSON LEARNED FROM ... Risk...Disaster Risk Reduction LESSON LEARNED FROM MOUNT MERAPI: PLANNING TOWARDS DISASTER RESILIENCE “ASIAN CONFERENCE ON DISASTER

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  • DisasterRiskReductionLESSON LEARNED FROMMOUNTMERAPI:LESSONLEARNEDFROMMOUNTMERAPI:PLANNINGTOWARDSDISASTERRESILIENCE

    ASIANCONFERENCEONDISASTERRISKREDUCTION2016

    DR.Raditya DjatiDeputyDirectorforPrevention

    DirectorateforDisasterRiskReductionTheNationalAuthorityforDisasterManagement

    Ph k 25 26th f F b 2016Phuket2526th ofFebruary2016

  • DisasterTrendinIndonesia20022015

    2,000

    1.9671.941

    1.8116000008000001000000

    400500600

    DisasterEvents,Fatality,andAffectedPeoplein2015

    1,400

    1,600

    1,800

    1.582

    1.633

    1.674

    1.246

    0200000400000600000

    0100200300

    800

    1,000

    1,200

    775 740816

    1.073 NumberofEvents Fatality Affected

    Of1.582disastereventin2015,240peoplewereloss their life; 1 18 million displaced 24 365

    200

    400

    600

    143

    403

    599 losstheirlife;1.18milliondisplaced,24.365housesdamaged,484publicfacilityalsodamaged.

    Morethan 95% of it was caused by

    200

    2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

    Tsunami Gempabumi dan Tsunami GempabumiLetusan Gunungapi Gelombang Pasang / Abrasi Kebakaran Hutan dan LahanKekeringan Banjir dan Tanah Longsor Tanah Longsor

    Morethan 95%ofitwascausedbyhydrometeorological hazards,dominatedbyextremeweather,landslide,andfloods.Landslidestillbethemostdeadlytypeofdisaster.

    Update: 14-12-2015Source: BNPB

    Kekeringan Banjir dan Tanah Longsor Tanah LongsorPuting Beliung Banjir

  • A d fAgendaofDiscussionforTodayIndonesianissuesonVolcanoes

    LessonLearnedfromMountMerapi

    ImplementationonHFAandPostSendaiCommitmentonSFDRR20152030

    NationalActionPlanonDRRinIndonesia

  • #1 INDONESIAN ISSUES ON VOLCANOES#1INDONESIANISSUESONVOLCANOES

    Th I d i hi l i th lt f l t t i l t TheIndonesianarchipelagoistheresultofcomplextectonicplatecollisioninvolvingfourdifferentplates.Subduction ofthecontinentalIndoAustralianplatebeneaththeEurasianplateformedthemainp pSundaBandavolcanicarcstretchingfromSumatratotheWest,throughJava,Bali,NusaTengara IslandstillBandatotheEast.

    VolcanoesinIndonesiaarepartofthePacificRingofFire.TheIndonesianarchipelagocontainsabout130activevolcanoes,whichismore than any other country About 76 of them have erupted inmorethananyothercountry.About76ofthemhaveeruptedinhistoricaltimes.Itcontainssomeoftheworld'smostfamousvolcanoeslikeToba,Krakatau,Tambora,and Merapi.

    F.Lavigne,J.Morin,Surono (eds.),TheAtlasofMerapi volcano,FirstEdition,2015

  • DistributionofVolcanicActivityinIndonesia

  • Historic Data on Great Volcanic Eruption EventHistoricDataonGreatVolcanicEruptionEvent

    Rank Death Toll Event Location DateRank DeathToll Event Location Date

    1. 92,000MountTambora (seealso YearWithoutaSummer)

    Indonesia April10,1815

    2. 36,000 Krakatoa Indonesia August2627,1883, g ,

    3. 29,000 MountPele MartiniqueMay7orMay8,1902

    4. 25,000 MountVesuviusPompeii and Herculaneum Italy

    August24,79ADulaneum, Italy

    5. 23,000 NevadodelRuiz Colombia November13,1985

    6. 15,000 MountUnzen Japan 1792

    7. 10,000 MountKelut Indonesia 1586

    8. 9,350Laki.Killedabout25%ofthepopulation(33%werekilledabout70yearsbeforebysmallpox)

    Iceland June8,1783

    9. 6,000 SantaMaria Guatemala 1902

    10. 5,115 MountKelut Indonesia May19,1919

  • #2 Lesson Learned fromMount Merapi#2LessonLearnedfromMountMerapi

    Merapistratovolcano(2965m)islocated in Java Indonesia 30 kmlocatedinJava,Indonesia,30kmnorthofthecityofYogyakarta.F.Lavigne,J.Morin,Surono (eds.),TheAtlasofMerapi volcano,FirstEdition,2015

    PhotographybyRadityaJati,2010

  • Disaster Occurred in YogyakartaDisasterOccurredinYogyakarta

    I 2006 th k l i d th 5000 i ti d d d In2006anearthquakeclaimedmorethan5000victims,anddamagedalmost380,000unitsofprivateandpublicinfrastructure.Aftertheearthquake,theMountMerapi eruptedandhadtheimpactontheq , p p pnorthernsideofYogyakartaCity

    On25th October2010MountMerapi erupted,releasinglarvaandashesforoveraweek,thevolcanoslargesteruptionsince1870.

    Thedeathtollwas353,andmorethan350,000peopleweret devacuated.

  • F.Lavigne,J.Morin,Surono (eds.),TheAtlasofMerapi volcano,FirstEdition,2015

  • SeveralhoursbeforeeruptionofMountMerapi: Oct 26 2010 at 2:30 PM Oct26,2010at2:30PM Hargobinangun refugeecamp morethan300refugee

    PhotographybyRadityaJati,2010

  • AFTERERUPTIONOFMOUNTMERAPIbOctober27,2010

    9:00PM

    PhotographybyRadityaJati,2010

  • PhotographybyRadityaJati,2010

  • Yogyakarta,4Nopember 2010Turgo,Yogyakarta1Nopember 2010

    Ndeles,Klaten,1Nopember 2010

    Eruption had happened withEruptionhadhappenedwitharound4KMofblastuptothesky.ItcanbeseenfromthecityofYogyakarta.

    Peoplearestilldoingtheirp gdailyactivitiesnearMountMerapi

    Somepeoplestillleavetheircattles atthedisasterzoneandhave to deliver the food to the

    PhotographybyRadityaJati,2010

    havetodeliverthefoodtothedisasterzone.Today,somehadbeenevacuated(Nov,82010)

  • Afterthehazardzonemovedtotheradiusof20KmfromMountMerapi,manyoftherefugee camps are migratedrefugeecampsaremigratedtothesavezonethatarelocatedandconcentratedintheSportStadiumofMaguwohardjo.Morethan22h d fthousandrefugeesareconcentratedinthisplace.

    Maguwohardjo,5November2010PhotographybyRadityaJati,2010

  • F.Lavigne,J.Morin,Surono (eds.),TheAtlasofMerapi volcano,FirstEdition,2015

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  • #3ImplementationonHFAandPostSendaiC it t SFDRR 2015 2030CommitmentonSFDRR20152030

    I d i i t l di t b t 1980 2009 I d i Indonesiaisextremelydisasterprone:between19802009Indonesiasuffered312naturaldisasters,thisrankingfourthhighestintheAsianPacificnations.Itsdeathtotal,however,wasthesecondhighestat, , gapproximately191,000people,andthecountrysufferedeconomiclossesofsome22.5billionUS$.

  • DisasterRiskGovernancehasbeendeveloped

    PolicyandRegulation

    L N 24

    Institutions

    BNPB t bli h d

    Planning

    N ti l Di t

    Finance

    N ti l B d t

    MultistakeholderCollaboration

    N ti l d LawNo.24year2007

    GovernmentRegulationNo.21 22 d 23

    BNPBestablishedin2008

    BPBDatProvincialandDistrictLevel

    NationalDisasterManagementPlan

    DRRActionPlan LocalDMPlan

    NationalBudgetforDMhasbeenincreased.

    NationalandLocalPlatformofDRR

    ActiveroleofCSO i DRR21,22,and23

    year2008. RegulationsoftheChiefofBNPB

    MasterPlanof12hazards

    CSOsinDRR Establishmentofclustercoordination

    LocalRegulationonDisasterManagementatProvincialandi i /Ci l

    system

    District/CityLevel

  • FirstofalltheHyogoFrameworkhasencouragedIndonesia to shift its approach in disaster managementIndonesiatoshiftitsapproachindisastermanagementfromresponseorientedtodisasterriskreduction.PriortotheHFA,disasterinIndonesiawasmanagedbyaunitundertheVicePresidentsOffice,whichdealtmostlywith

    d t di t Aftemergencyresponseandpostdisasterrecovery.AfterHFA,Indonesiafocusesmoreoneffortstoreducerisksandbuildresiliencetodisaster.

    Secondly,thefourprioritiesoftheHFAhaveshapedIndonesiannationaldisastermanagementsystem,withitsfocus on: (1) legislation (2) planning (3) institution (4)focuson:(1)legislation,(2)planning,(3)institution,(4)budget,and(5)capacitydevelopmentatalllevels.

    Withregardstolegislation,in2007IndonesiaenacteditsfirstDisasterManagementLaw,LawNo.24of2007.Ithasbeensubsequentlyfollowedbyaseriesofpresidentialand government decrees and other subsidiary legislationsandgovernmentdecreesandothersubsidiarylegislationsatallgovernmentlevelsdowntothedistrict/citylevel.

  • In terms of planning as the focus is more on DRR Indonesia launched its Intermsofplanning,asthefocusismoreonDRR,IndonesialauncheditsfirstnationalDMPlan20102014inlate2009.Itwassubsequentlyfollowedbyprovincialanddistrict/citygovernmentsthatissuedtheirLocalDMPlans Currently all provinces have their DM Plans and more than 80Plans.CurrentlyallprovinceshavetheirDMPlansandmorethan80districtsandcities(outofatotalof506districtsandcities)havedevelopedtheirDMPlans.

    Relatedtotheinstitutionalarrangement,theLawNo.24of2007hasmandated all levels of government to have their independent DM agencies.mandatedalllevelsofgovernmenttohavetheirindependentDMagencies.AtthenationallevelwehaveBNPBthatwasestablishedin2008.AtpresentallprovinceshavealreadyhadtheirownDMAgenciesand84%ofthedistrictsandcitieshaveestablishedDMAgencies.g

  • I t f b d t i th t 10 b d t f DRR h h Intermsofbudget,inthepast10yearsbudgetforDRRhasshownasignificantincrease.ArecentstudybytheNationalPlanningBoard,Bappenas,currentlythelevelofbudgetforDRRinsectoral linei i i h d d 1% f h l i l b dministrieshasexceeded1%ofthetotalnationalbudget.

    With d t P i it 2 3 d 5 f HFA h b hi d WithregardtoPriority2,3and5ofHFA,progresshasbeenachievedinriskmapping,EarlyWarningSys

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