bellwork. Do you think that other countries influence the us? How? Or, do you think the us influences other countries? How?. 5 minutes. The Rise of the Qing Dynasty. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The Crisis Deepens
Do you think that other countries influence the us? How? Or, do you think the us influences other countries? How?
The Rise of the Qing Dynasty
By 1600, the Ming had ruled for more than 200 years, and the dynasty was weakening. Its problems grew- ineffective rulers, corrupt officials, and a government out of money. Higher taxes and bad harvests pushed millions of peasants towards starvation. Civil strife and rebellion followed.
Nurhaci's organization of the Manchu people, his attacks on China's Ming Dynasty and Korea's Joseon Dynasty, and his conquest of China's northeastern Liaodong province, laid the groundwork for the conquest of China by the Qing Dynasty. Nurhachi reigned from 1616 to his death on September 30, 1626. Nurhaci is credited with ordering the creation of a written script for the Manchu language.
Manchus in PowerThe Manchus captured Beijing took over the government and created their own dynasty- the Qing Dynasty.
Upheld the traditional Confucian beliefs and social structures.
Protected the frontiers from attacks and stopped internally rebellions.
Forced the Chinese men to wear their hair in a pigtail to show submission.
Important Manchu Rulers
Kangxi1654 - 1722He is considered to be a great leader because he reduced government expenses and lowered taxes. He also was a fierce warrior. As Mongols threatened to attack northern China, Kangxi decided to take matters into his own hands by organizing an army of 80,000 troops and personally leading them into battle.
Qian-Long 1736-1795He is considered to be a great leader because under his leadership China reached its greatest size and prosperity. He also was known for be a diligent worker- he would often sleep for only a couple hours a night and awake at dawn to begin the days work.
To Trade or not to Trade?To the Chinese, their country had been the cultural center of the universe for two thousand years. If foreign states wished to trade with the Chinese, they would have to follow specific rules. These include only trading at special ports and paying tribute. The Dutch adhered to the rules even kowtowing to the emperor, but the British had issues with the restrictions and often challenged them.
Guangzhou in southern China was a cosmopolitan port, flying the flags of its many foreign traders. The rest of China, however, remained firmly isolated until the mid 19th century.
What resources did the Chinese have?Because of their self-sufficiency, the Chinese had little interest in trading with the West. The balance of trade was in Chinas favor- they earned more for their exports than they did from their imports. The British imported millions of pounds of tea from the Chinese and paid in silver coins, thus draining their supply. They could not find anything the Chinese would buy from them until they began trading OPIUM!
Open for business
By what right do they (merchants) use the poisonous drug (opium) to injure the Chinese people? I have heard that the smoking of opium is very strictly forbidden by your country; that is because the harm caused by the opium is clearly understood. Since it is not permitted to do harm to your own country, then even less should you let it be passed on to the harm of other countries.
Opium WarThe British merchants began peddling opium at Chinese ports. The Chinese government asked them to stop, but it continued.Most battles took place at sea, the British held the advantage with steam powered gun ships. The Chinese were easily defeated and were forced to sign the treaty of Nanjing.
The Chinese suffered a humiliating defeat in the Opium War and they were forced to agree to British demands within the Treaty of Nanjing. Treaty of NanjingHong KongTrade6 million
Taiping RebellionHong Xiuquan led a rebellion with an army of peasants- both men and women- from southern China. By 1853 his army consisted of over one million people. They captured the city of Nanjing and other provinces in southeast China. The rebellion continued for 14 years until the Qing were finally able to crush the resistance. Over 30 million people died from warfare and starvation.
Open Door Policy
I am driven by my hatred of foreigners. I will use my fist, a sword or gun to oust the foreign devils from China.European nations and Japan prepare to dismember China after the Boxer Rebellion, while the watchful American eagle stays in the background: American cartoon, 1900.
As the 20th century dawned, thousands of Chinese peasants and workers joined an organization called the, Society of Harmonious Fists. They protested their countrys dealings with foreigners. Popularly known as the BoxersProtesters were punished by being made to wear wooden collars in public, as shown here. They could not lie down or reach their mouths while wearing the collars.
A changing ChinaForeign nations took advantage of Chinas weak military technology and its economic and political problems. Spheres of influence existed- places where a foreign nation controlled trade and investment within China.The Americans initiated the Open Door Policy- protected the Chinese form colonization and US trading rights.The Chinese became increasingly humiliated by their loss of power. Widespread frustration erupted in rebellion.The Boxer rebels hoped to expel westerners- a national coalition crushed the Boxer rebellion.