Energy source for contraction ATP ADP + Creatine phosphate = ATP ATP is constantly broken down and rebuilt

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Energy source for contraction

Energy source for contractionATP ADP + Creatine phosphate = ATP

ATP is constantly broken down and rebuilt

ATP = adenosine triphosphateADP= adenosine diphosphate

ATP produced by cellular respirationoccurs in the mitochondria (requires O2 and glucose)25% of energy formed is usedWhat happens to the rest?Heat more muscle activity= more heat

Oxygen DebtOxygen is used to make ATP in cellular Resp. Exerciserun out of O = Lactic acid Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation muscle cramps

Muscle FatigueMuscle lose ability to contract after prolonged exercise or strainCaused by lactic acid build up

Threshold StimulusMinimal strength required to cause a contractionMotor neuron releases enough acetylcholine to reach threshold

All-or-None ResponseFibers do not contract partially, they either do or don't

Motor UnitThe muscle fiber + the motor neuron

Recruitmentmore and more fibers contract as the intensity of the stimulus increases

Muscle ToneSustained contraction of individual fibers, even when muscle is at restLost if motor nerve axons are cut

Hypertrophy - muscles enlarge (working out or certain disorders)Atrophy - muscles become small and weak due to disuse

18723465TendonMuscleFasicleMuscle fiberMyofibrilEndomysiumPerimysiumEpimysium

1234756MuscleEpimysiumFasicleEndomysiumSarcolemmaMyfibirlperimysiumMajor Skeletal musclesNames of muscles describe themEx: pectoralis major- large muscle in pectoral regionEx: Deltoid- shaped like a delta or triangleMuscle of Facial ExpressionEnable communication of feelingsEpicranius frontalis and occipitalisOrbicularis oculi- around eyeOrbicularis oris- around mouthBuccinator- cheekZygomaticus major- zygomatic archZygomaticus minor- zygomatic archPlatysma- chest upward over neck to face, frownMuscle of MasticationChewing movementsMasseterTemporalisMedial pterygoidLateral Pterygoid

Move Head and Vertebral ColumnSternocleidomastoidSplenius capitisSemispinalis capitis

BackTrapeziusDeltoidRhomboid majorRhomboid minorLevator scapulaeTeres MajorTeres MinorInfraspinatusSupraspinatusLatissimus dorsihttp://www.biologycorner.com/anatomy/muscles/back/back.swf

FrontTrapeziusSternocleidomastoidDeltoidPectoralis minorPectoralis majorSerratus anteriorRectus abdominisInternal obliqueExternal obliquehttp://www.biologycorner.com/anatomy/muscles/torso/torso.swf

ArmSubscapularisTriceps brachiiBiceps BrachiiBrachialisCoracobrachialisTopExtensor carpi ulnarisExtensor carpi radialis brevisExtensor carpi radialis longusExtensor digitorumFlexor carpi ulanrishttp://www.biologycorner.com/anatomy/muscles/arms/top_arm.swf

19ArmBottom/UnderneathBiceps brachiiBrachioradialisBrachialisPronator teresFlexor carpi radialisFlexor carpi ulnarisPalmaris longushttp://www.biologycorner.com/anatomy/muscles/arms/bottom_arm.swf

Leg MusclesFront:SartoriusRectus FemorisVastus lateralisVastus medialisGracilisTensor fasciae lataeTibialis anteriorFibularis longusExtensor digitorum longushttp://www.biologycorner.com/anatomy/muscles/legs/front_legs.swfLeg MusclesBack:Gluteus maximusGluteus mediusGracilisSemimembranosusSemitendinosusBiceps femorisGastrocnemiusSoleushttp://www.biologycorner.com/anatomy/muscles/legs/back_legs.swf

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