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Epidermal and Dermal Hallmarks of Photoaging arePrevented by Treatment with Night Serum ContainingMelatonin, Bakuchiol, and AscorbylTetraisopalmitate: In Vitro and Ex Vivo Studies
Mridvika Narda . Anthony Brown . Béatrice Muscatelli-Groux .
Jean A. Grimaud . Corinne Granger
Received: November 18, 2019 / Published online: January 3, 2020� The Author(s) 2020
Introduction: Photoaging is a complex processthat is chiefly the result of oxidative stresscaused by ultraviolet (UV)-generated reactiveoxygen species. To counter this process, wedeveloped a 3-in-1 night facial serum (3-in-1NFS) containing a combination of direct andindirect antioxidants and polyphenols that isdesigned to attenuate UV-generated free radi-cals and stimulate dermal protein synthesis. Inclinical trials 3-in-1 NFS improved the appear-ance of photoaged skin. In this study we soughtto identify some of the main histologic changesresponsible for this.
Methods: We performed an immunolabelinganalysis of some of the salient epidermal anddermal proteins in 3-in-1 NFS-treated primaryepidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) and dermalfibroblasts (HDFs) in vitro, and in UV-exposedskin explants ex vivo. Numbers of apoptoticsunburn cells following exposure of 3-in-1 NFS-treated skin explants to UV radiation were alsodetermined.Results: We demonstrate that 3-in-1 NFSincreases levels of filaggrin and aquaporin 3 inHEKs, and levels of collagen I and collagen III inHDFs in vitro. Levels of precursor procollagentype I and tropoelastin were increased in ex vivoskin explants. Numbers of apoptotic sunburncells were significantly reduced in UV-exposedskin explants. These effects were only observedwith the combination of ingredients in 3-in-1NFS, suggesting that they have a synergisticeffect on photoaged skin biology.Conclusion: Our results show that some of thehistological hallmarks of photoaging areimproved with the use of 3-in-1 NFS.
Keywords: Antioxidant; Ascorbyl tetraisopal-mitate; Bakuchiol; Melatonin; Polyphenol;Photoaging; Skin aging; Ultraviolet
Enhanced Digital Features To view enhanced digitalfeatures for this article go to https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.11371665.
M. Narda (&) � C. GrangerInnovation and Development, ISDIN, Barcelona,Spaine-mail: [email protected]
A. BrownExternal Consultant to ISDIN, Barcelona, Spain
B. Muscatelli-Groux � J. A. GrimaudMATRISCIENCE SAS, Paris Santé Cochin, Paris,France
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Key Summary Points
Why carry out this study?
Facial photoaging significantly impactsquality of life and self-esteem. Effectiveand well-tolerated anti-photoagingtreatments are therefore needed.
To identify some of the main histologicchanges responsible for the clinicalimprovement seen in photoaged skinfollowing 3-in-1 NFS treatment.
What was learned from the study?
Use of 3-in-1 NFS increases the expressionof proteins that restore the skin’s barrierfunction, hydration levels, and helpreverse dermal protein atrophy.
The components of 3-in-1 NFS synergizeto uniquely protect the skin from theeffects of UV radiation.
Skin serves as interface between the body’sinternal structures and its external environ-ment, and is the site upon which the cumula-tive effects of age and its external environmentvisibly converge. These extrinsic factors causegross morphological and physiological changesin skin that superimpose upon the natural agingprocess. The most important environmentalfactor leading to extrinsically aged skin is solarultraviolet radiation (UVR). Chronic exposureof skin to solar UVR leads to a premature agingphenotype characterized by deep wrinkles, lax-ity, and a leathery appearance known as pho-toaging .
Photoaged skin is characterized by massiveloss of dermal collagen that is the net result ofreduced type I and III procollagen synthesis and increased degradation of mature collagenby metalloproteinases (MMPs) . This resultsin irregular distribution of collagen within thedermis with areas completely devoid of collagen
fibers adjacent to dense clumps of collagenousmaterial . UVR exposure also reduces thesynthesis of elastin and increases elastic fiberdegradation . Additionally, disorganized andnon-functional elastic fibers accumulate withinthe dermis, making photoaged skin appear yel-low and leathery . Together the breakdown ofthe normal collagen and elastin reduces skin’selasticity and tensile strength, resulting in sag-ging and wrinkling [7, 8]. Chronic sun exposurealso perturbs the structural integrity of the toplayer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum(SC), and alters its hydration and lipid proper-ties, as well as its thickness, color, and light-absorbing properties [9–11].
Crucially both the epidermis and dermis arecapable of self-repair and this natural processcan be augmented by application of exogenoussubstances that stimulate the skin’s homeostaticresponses. To date, only retinoids have beenshown to unequivocally improve the appear-ance of photoaged skin . Their use, however,is compromised by undesirable side effects suchas pruritus, burning, erythema, peeling, andphotosensitivity . To address this, wedeveloped a serum-in-oil night facial serum (3-in-1 NFS) that incorporates three ingredientswhich actively support the biological processescompromised in photoaged skin. Melatonin (5-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a pineal hor-mone that acts as both an indirect antioxidant,by inducing antioxidative gene expression, anda free radical scavenger [13, 14]. Bakuchiol (4-[(1E,3S)-3-ethenyl-3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-1-yl]phenol) is a naturally occurring phenoliccompound with retinol-like properties .Bakuchiol induces collagen expression in cul-tured fibroblasts and activates the expression ofgenes involved in antioxidant defense [15, 16].Bakuchiol is also thought to act as a direct freeradical scavenger . Clinically, bakuchiol wasshown to improve signs of photoaging, includ-ing wrinkling and hyperpigmentation, to adegree comparable to retinol . Ascorbyltetraisopalmitate (ATIP) is a lipophilic and non-oxidizable form of vitamin C . As well aspossessing antioxidant and anti-inflammatoryproperties, ATIP also increases the skin’shydration and smoothness [19, 20]. Clinicallythese three components resulted in skin that
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was firmer, less wrinkled, and more hydrated insubjects after nightly application of the serumfor 3 months . In order to identify some ofthe histological changes likely responsible forthis, we performed an immunocytochemicalanalysis of primary human keratinocytes andfibroblasts cultured in the presence of differentconcentrations of 3-in-1 NFS, and an immuno-histochemical analysis of ultraviolet (UV)-ex-posed skin explants topically treated with 3-in-1NFS and each of its constituents in isolation.
In Vitro Study
Cell Culture and ImmunocytochemistryPrimary adult human epithelial keratinocytes(HEKs) and primary human dermal face fibrob-lasts (HDFs) were incubated with 500 lL/well of3-in-1 NFS-containing media (0.05%, 0.1%,0.5%, and 1%) for 24 h at 37 �C. Following 3-in-1 NFS treatment, cells were fixed and stainedwith the following primary antibodies: rabbitanti-collagen I (#20111, Novotec, Bron, France),rabbit anti-collagen III (#20311, Novotec, Bron,France), rabbit anti-laminin (#24811, Novotec,Bron, France), rabbit anti-fibronectin (#24911,Novotec, Bron, France), rabbit anti-aquaporin 3(#ab153694, Abcam, Cambridge, UK), and rab-bit anti-filaggrin (#PAJ103Hu01, Cloud-CloneCorp, Katy, TX) overnight at 37 �C. Cells werewashed and then incubated with secondaryantibody (Alexa Fluor 488 goat anti-rabbit IgG[#A-11008, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham,MA]) at room temperature for 2 h. Finally, cellswere incubated with DAPI (for nucleic acidstaining) at room temperature for 10 min. Fiveindependent experiments were performed foreach condition.
Image Acquisition and AnalysisFluorescence images were obtained using aNikon Ti-S microscope (Nikon, Tokyo, Japan)and the fluorescent signal was quantified usingMetaMorph� software (Molecular Devices, SanJose, CA, USA). For collagen I/III, laminin, andfibronectin, values were calculated as fluores-cence intensity of the protein/nucleus number.
For aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and filaggrin (FLG) itwas calculated as fluorescence intensity of theprotein/fluorescence intensity of DAPI (nu-cleus). Differences between untreated controland treated cells were determined by means of atwo-tailed Student’s t test. A p value less than0.05 was considered significant.
Ex Vivo Study
Antiaging TreatmentAbdominal skin explants (NativeSkin�, Geno-skin, Toulouse, France) were generated fromtwo healthy Caucasian women (30 and 32 yearsof age, Fitzpatrick type II) undergoingabdominoplasty. Two explants per donor wereused for subsequent studies.
Anti-photoaging effects of the followingformulations were assessed: (1) 3-in-1 NFS, (2)vehicle, (3) ATIP, (4) melatonin, (5) bakuchiol,and (6) the combination of melatonin andbakuchiol (Mel/Bak). ATIP, melatonin, baku-chiol, and Mel/Bak were used at the same con-centrations as those in 3-in-1 NFS and in thesame vehicle (see Table 1 for full vehicle com-position). Briefly, 10 lL of each test item wasevenly applied to the surface of NativeSkin�
units 1 h after UV radiation (12.5 J/cm2 UVAand 50 mJ/cm2 UVB) for 4 consecutive days. Asilicone ring was firmly fixed onto the biopsy toprevent topically applied formulations fromleaking into the culture medium. Before eachapplication, a cotton swab was used to removethe previous day’s treatment and the surface ofthe explant was washed twice with PBS. Fol-lowing the fourth UV treatment cycle, formu-lations were left on the surface of the skin for2 h prior to fixation and paraffin embedding.
Table 1 Vehicle composition
Vehicle Caprylic/capric triglyceride, dicaprylyl carbonate,
squalane, alcohol denat., caprylyl glycol, 1,2-
hexanediol, PEG-8; aqua, tocopherol, ascorbyl
palmitate, citric acid, ascorbic acid
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Quantification of Sunburn Cells
Five-micron skin sections were stained withhematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Representativeimages were then captured using a NanoZoomerS360 Digital Slide Scanner (Hamamatsu Pho-tonics, Hamamatsu, Japan). The number ofsunburn cells (SBCs) (keratinocytes withpyknotic nuclei) in each section was visuallydetermined. A total of 40 images were analyzedper experimental condition (10 images perreplicate; 2 replicates per donor; 2 donors perexperimental condition). For each replicate,donor and experimental condition, themean ± standard error (SEM) was calculated.Data was analyzed by Dunnett’s multiple com-parisons test. A p value less than 0.05 was con-sidered significant.
Five-micron skin sections were stained with ratanti-procollagen type I (#ab64409, Abcam,Cambridge, UK) and rabbit anti-tropoelastin(#ab21600, Abcam, Cambridge, UK) antibodiesovernight at 4 �C. Slides were washed and thenincubated with secondary antibodies (goat anti-rat Alexa 546 [#A-11081, Invitrogen, Carlsbad,CA] or goat anti-rabbit Alexa 488 [#ab150077,Abcam, Cambridge, UK]) for 1 h at room tem-perature and counterstaining of cell nuclei wasperformed using DAPI. For all experimentalconditions, a control incubated without pri-mary antibodies was included.
Image Acquisition and Analysis
Immunostained slides were mounted with anti-fading medium (FluoromountTM, SigmaAldrich, St. Louis, MO) and imaged with aNanozoomer S360 Digital Slide Scanner (Ha-mamatsu Photonics, Hamamatsu, Japan) andNDP.view2 software (Hamamatsu Photonics,Hamamatsu, Japan). Procollagen type I andtropoelastin expression was determined by cal-culating the percentage area of the dermis usingImage J software (NIH, Bethesda, MD). A total of64 images per experimental condition wereanalyzed (2 donors per experimental condition;
2 skin explants per donor; 2 tissue sections perexplant; 8 images per tissue section). Statisticalanalysis was performed considering the meanvalues of both donors using a Games-Howellpost hoc test to compare between conditions. Ap value less than 0.05 was consideredsignificant.
Ethical Approval and Informed Consent
All human skin explants used in this study wereobtained from abdominal surgical residues afterwritten informed consent from the donors andin full respect of the Declaration of Helsinki andarticle L.1245 of the French Public Health Code. The latter does not require any priorauthorization by an ethics committee for use ofsurgical waste.
In Vitro Study
Effect of 3-in-1 NFS on FLG and AQP3ExpressionIn clinical trials, 3-in-1 NFS was shown toreduce transepidermal water loss (TEWL) andincrease hydration levels . We thereforesuspected that 3-in-1 NFS may influence theexpression of key molecules involved in skinbarrier formation and epidermal water trans-port, such as FLG  and AQP3 . Expres-sion levels of FLG and AQP3 were examined inprimary adult HEKs cultured in media supple-mented with 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% 3-in-1NFS. FLG expression was significantly increasedin the presence of 3-in-1 NFS at all concentra-tions tested, with the greatest effects observed at0.05% and 0.1% (Fig. 1a). A dose-dependentincrease in AQP3 expression was observed(Fig. 1b).
Effect of 3-in-1 NFS on Dermal ProteinsClinically, 3-in-1 NFS reduced facial wrinkles, suggesting it may influence dermal proteinlevels in photoaged skin. We therefore exam-ined the effect of 3-in-1 NFS on the expressionof dermal proteins by culturing primary HDFs in
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the presence of 3-in-1 NFS. Expression of colla-gen I and III, the most abundant dermal pro-teins, was higher in HDFs treated with 0.05%
and 0.1% 3-in-1 NFS, but was inhibited athigher concentrations (Fig. 1c, d). Laminin, amajor component of basement membranes that
Fig. 1 Effect of 3-in-1 NFS on keratinocytes and fibrob-lasts. a FLG expression, b AQP3 expression, c collagen Iexpression, d collagen III expression, e laminin expression,and f fibronectin expression in fibroblasts treated with
3-in-1 NFS (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%). Graphs show meanprotein expression levels (± SEM) of 5 independentexperiments relative to those of untreated control cells(100%). *p\ 0.05; **p\ 0.01
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separates the epidermis from the dermis ,was only increased at 0.5% (Fig. 1e). Fibro-nectin, a large multicomponent glycoproteinthat plays an important role in the organizationand maintenance of the extracellular matrix(ECM) , was inhibited at both low (0.05%and 0.1%) and high concentrations (1%) of3-in-1 NFS. Only 0.5% 3-in-1 NFS had no impactupon fibronectin expression (Fig. 1f).
Ex Vivo Study
Effect of 3-in-1 NFS on Sunburn CellFormationExplants treated with 3-in-1 NFS presented withsignificantly fewer SBCs following UV exposurethan untreated skin explants (4.75 SBCs/donorvs. 8.5 SBCs/donor, respectively; p\0.05).Indeed, numbers of SBCs in 3-in-1 NFS-treatedskin were similar to those in non-irradiated skin(3.5 SBCs/donor; p = not significant [n.s.]).Conversely, the number of SBCs in vehicle-treated skin (9.75 SBC/donor; p = n.s.), and inskin treated with the individual components of3-in-1 NFS alone (melatonin 9.25 SBC/donor;bakuchiol 10 SBC/donor; ATIP 9 SBC/donor;p = n.s., all), or the combination of melatoninand bakuchiol (9.25 SBC/donor; p = n.s.) weresimilar to those of untreated UV-exposed skin(Fig. 2).
Effect of 3-in-1 NFS on Collagen BiosynthesisOur in vitro study suggested that 3-in-1 NFSmay help restore collagen deficit in photoagedskin by stimulating new collagen synthesis indermal fibroblasts. To determine whether thiseffect was also observed in photoaged skinwhen topically applied, we sought to examinethe effect of 3-in-1 NFS on the precursor ofcollagen I, procollagen type I, in skin explantschronically exposed to UVR.
Treatment with 3-in-1 NFS increased theexpression of procollagen type I in irradiatedskin explants by 78.8% (p\0.01) relative tountreated irradiated skin explants (Fig. 3a, b).Interestingly, neither the individual compo-nents of 3-in-1 NFS (ATIP ? 1.88%; bakuchiol -9.27%; melatonin - 4.10%; p = n.s., all) nor thecombination of melatonin and bakuchiol (?
11.0%, p = n.s.) had an effect on procollagenexpression (Fig. 3a). Moreover, only 3-in-1 NFSwas able to increase procollagen type I levelsbeyond those in unirradiated skin (? 45.5%,p = n.s.).
Effect of 3-in-1 NFS on Tropoelastin LevelsTreatment with 3-in-1 NFS also increasedexpression levels of tropoelastin in the dermisof irradiated skin explants. Compared tountreated irradiated skin, tropoelastin expres-sion was increased by 95.8% (p\0.05) (Fig. 4a,b). As observed for procollagen type I, the indi-vidual components of 3-in-1 NFS had no effecton tropoelastin expression (ATIP ? 5.92%;bakuchiol - 3.97%; melatonin - 6.90%;p = n.s., all) (Fig. 4a). Tropoelastin expression inskin treated with the combination of melatoninand bakuchiol was increased with respect tountreated irradiated skin (? 35.1%, p\0.05),but not to the same extent as 3-in-1 NFS(Fig. 4a). Moreover, only 3-in-1 NFS increaseddermal tropoelastin levels beyond those inunirradiated control skin (? 69.8%, p\0.05).
In clinical studies, 3-in-1 NFS, a night facialserum, comprising a direct antioxidant (ATIP),an indirect antioxidant (melatonin), and apolyphenol (bakuchiol), was shown to reducefacial wrinkles and improve the barrier proper-ties and hydration levels of photoaged skin .In this study we sought to understand the his-tological events responsible for this.
Skin serves a vital role in maintaininghomeostasis by limiting passive water loss fromthe body and reducing the impact of chemical,physical, and microbial insults in its environ-ment. These defensive functions are an inherentproperty of the SC [27, 28]. Thus, properdevelopment and maintenance of the SC isparamount. By increasing FLG expression, a keymolecule in SC formation , our results sug-gest that 3-in-1 NFS may help restore epidermalskin barrier integrity in photoaged skin. Theclinically reduced TEWL following 3-in-1 NFStreatment is presumably a direct reflection ofthis. FLG also plays an important role in
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maintaining proper epidermal hydration levelsfollowing its proteolysis to produce naturalmoisturizing factors such as urocanic acid(UCA) and pyrrolidone carboxylic acid . Theupregulation of both FLG and AQP3, anaquaglyceroporin that transports water, urea,and glycerol into the cells of the epidermis ,observed in vitro upon 3-in-1 NFS treatmentmay thus account for the clinically improvedhydration levels.
A hallmark event of UV exposure is theoccurrence of SBCs within the epidermis[32, 33]. SBCs are keratinocytes undergoing
apoptosis as a result of irreparable damage totheir DNA . The fact that 3-in-1 NFS signif-icantly reduced their formation in the epider-mis of UV-exposed skin explants suggests that itlimits the damaging effects of UVR. Whetherthis protection is a direct consequence of theimproved barrier function of 3-in-1 NFS-treatedskin or an indirect consequence of higherantioxidant levels , modulation of apoptoticsignaling pathways , or greater expression ofUVB-absorbing UCA within the SC  remainsto be established. What is clear, however, is thatthis photoprotective effect is a unique
Fig. 2 Effect of 3-in-1 NFS on sunburn cell formation inUV-exposed skin explants. a Mean number of SBCs perexperimental condition. Error bars correspond to the meanof 40 images. Significance levels are calculated versusuntreated, unexposed control skin (NIC); #p = 0.05;*p\ 0.05; **p\ 0.01. NIC non-irradiated control, UV
UV-exposed untreated skin. b Representative images ofH&E-stained sections of non-irradiated skin (left), UV-exposed skin (center), and 3-in-1 NFS-treated (right) skin.SBCs are circled. All images were taken at 910magnification
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consequence of the combination of melatonin,bakuchiol, and ATIP, since none of these com-ponents individually had an effect on SBC for-mation. Antioxidant synergism betweenmelatonin and vitamin C has previously beenreported, with melatonin thought to reverse thepro-oxidant activity of vitamin C ; howeverfurther studies are warranted to better under-stand the synergistic photoprotection affordedby this combination of ingredients.
After 3 months of nightly use, 3-in-1 NFSsignificantly reduced facial wrinkles . Thewrinkling and reduced elasticity typical of
photoaged skin are the result of a reduction inthe amount of dermal ECM [38, 39]. Here wedemonstrate that 3-in-1 NFS helps reverse thisdecline. Expression of both of collagen I and IIIwas increased in HDFs, indicating that 3-in-1NFS induces new collagen synthesis. This wasconfirmed in photo-irradiated skin explants, inwhich significant increases in precursor procol-lagen type I levels were observed when treatedtopically with 3-in-1 NFS. Additionally, weobserved an increase in levels of tropoelastin, anelastin precursor, in this photoaged skin model.Notably, levels of both procollagen type I and
Fig. 3 Effect of 3-in-1 NFS on procollagen type I expres-sion in UV-exposed skin explants. a Mean area of thedermis positive for procollagen type I expression. Errorbars correspond to the mean area (± SEM) of 64 images.Significance levels are calculated versus untreated UV-exposed skin (UV). **p\ 0.01. NIC non-irradiated
control, UV UV-exposed untreated skin. b Representativeimages showing fluorescence staining of procollagen type I(red) in skin dermis from non-irradiated skin (left), UV-exposed skin (center), and 3-in-1 NFS-treated (right) skin.All images were taken at 910 magnification
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tropoelastin were only significantly increased inex vivo skin explants upon 3-in-1 NFS treatmentand not by its individual components, alludingagain to synergism between these ingredients.Moreover, its effects on dermal proteinsappeared to be limited to stimulating collagenand elastin expression, since other ECM pro-teins, including laminin and fibronectin, werelargely unaffected by 3-in-1 NFS.
Although induction of collagen and elastinsynthesis is essential for increasing dermal
collagen and elastin levels, it is not sufficient onits own for the formation of functional collagenand elastic fibers. Hence it would therefore benecessary to examine whether functional col-lagen and elastin fibers are formed upon 3-in-1NFS treatment. The fact that facial wrinkling isreduced by 3-in-1 NFS, however, suggests that itdoes improve the mechanical and structuralintegrity of the skin, alluding to the formationof functional collagen and elastin fibers. Like-wise, whilst the photo-irradiated skin explant
Fig. 4 Effect of 3-in-1 NFS on tropoelastin expression inUV-exposed skin explants. a Mean area of the dermispositive for tropoelastin expression. Error bars correspondto the mean area (± SEM) in 64 images. Significance levelsare calculated versus untreated UV-exposed skin (UV);*p\ 0.05. NIC non-irradiated control, UV UV-exposed
untreated skin. b Representative images showing fluores-cence staining of tropoelastin (green) in skin dermis/epidermis from non-irradiated skin (left), UV-exposed skin(center), and 3-in-1 NFS-treated (right) skin. All imageswere taken at 910 magnification
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model used in this study effectively recapitu-lates a number of the principle histologicchanges of photoaging, including modulatinggenes involved in epidermis development andECM homeostasis (data not shown), the anti-photoaging effects of 3-in-1 NFS can only trulybe gauged by determining its effects in vivousing histological samples from photoagedpatients treated with 3-in-1 NFS.
Our immunocytochemical analyses of ker-atinocytes and fibroblasts, in combination withour histologic analysis of skin explants, suggeststhat some of the characteristic hallmarks ofphotoaging can be restored with regular use of3-in-1 NFS. The increased expression of proteinsthat improve the skin’s barrier function andhydration levels, and upregulation of collagenand elastin expression within the dermis, inturn accounts for the positive effects on skinappearance and function clinically. Moreover,our data suggests that the combination ofmelatonin, bakuchiol, and ATIP together exertsa synergistic effect on skin biology in reversingsigns of aging acquired as a result of UVexposure.
We wish to thank Jessica Romero, ClaudiaNavarro, and Anna Rodriguez of Leitat whoperformed the ex vivo study described here.
Funding. This study was wholly funded byISDIN, the manufacturer of 3-in-1 NFS. TheRapid Service Fee was funded by ISDIN.
Authorship. All authors had full access to allof the data in this study and take completeresponsibility for the integrity of the data andaccuracy of the data analysis. All named authorsmeet the International Committee of MedicalJournal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorshipfor this article, take responsibility for theintegrity of the work as a whole, and have giventheir approval for this version to be published.
Disclosures. Mridvika Narda and CorinneGranger are employees of ISDIN, the manufac-turer of 3-in-1 NFS. Anthony Brown is a paidconsultant to ISDIN. Béatrice Muscatelli-Grouxand Jean A Grimaud are employees of Matri-science who were paid by ISDIN to perform theexperimental work in this study.
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines. Allhuman skin explants used in this study wereobtained from abdominal surgical residues afterwritten informed consent from the donors andin full respect of the Declaration of Helsinki andarticle L.1245 of the French Public Health Code. The latter does not require any priorauthorization by an ethics committee for use ofsurgical waste.
Data Availability. Data sharing is notapplicable to this article as no datasets weregenerated or analyzed during the current study.
Open Access. This article is licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommer-cial 4.0 International License, which permitsany non-commercial use, sharing, adaptation,distribution and reproduction in any mediumor format, as long as you give appropriate creditto the original author(s) and the source, providea link to the Creative Commons licence, andindicate if changes were made. The images orother third party material in this article areincluded in the article’s Creative Commonslicence, unless indicated otherwise in a creditline to the material. If material is not includedin the article’s Creative Commons licence andyour intended use is not permitted by statutoryregulation or exceeds the permitted use, youwill need to obtain permission directly from thecopyright holder. To view a copy of this licence,visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
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Epidermal and Dermal Hallmarks of Photoaging are Prevented by Treatment with Night Serum Containing Melatonin, Bakuchiol, and Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate: In Vitro and Ex Vivo StudiesAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsConclusion
IntroductionMethodsIn Vitro StudyCell Culture and ImmunocytochemistryImage Acquisition and Analysis
Ex Vivo StudyAntiaging Treatment
Quantification of Sunburn CellsImmunohistochemistryImage Acquisition and AnalysisEthical Approval and Informed Consent
ResultsIn Vitro StudyEffect of 3-in-1 NFS on FLG and AQP3 ExpressionEffect of 3-in-1 NFS on Dermal Proteins
Ex Vivo StudyEffect of 3-in-1 NFS on Sunburn Cell FormationEffect of 3-in-1 NFS on Collagen BiosynthesisEffect of 3-in-1 NFS on Tropoelastin Levels