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Epidural Steroid and Facet Injections for Spinal Pain

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  • Epidural Steroid and Facet Injections for Spinal Pain Page 1 of 24 UnitedHealthcare Commercial Medical Policy Effective 03/01/2017

    Proprietary Information of UnitedHealthcare. Copyright 2017United HealthCare Services, Inc.

    EPIDURAL STEROID AND FACET INJECTIONS

    FOR SPINAL PAIN Policy Number: 2017T0004AA Effective Date: March 1, 2017 Table of Contents Page INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE .......................................... 1 BENEFIT CONSIDERATIONS ...................................... 1 COVERAGE RATIONALE ............................................. 1 DEFINITIONS .......................................................... 2 APPLICABLE CODES ................................................. 2 DESCRIPTION OF SERVICES ..................................... 15 CLINICAL EVIDENCE ................................................ 15 U.S. FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION ................... 21 CENTERS FOR MEDICARE AND MEDICAID SERVICES ... 21 REFERENCES .......................................................... 21 POLICY HISTORY/REVISION INFORMATION ................ 24 INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE This Medical Policy provides assistance in interpreting UnitedHealthcare benefit plans. When deciding coverage, the member specific benefit plan document must be referenced. The terms of the member specific benefit plan document [e.g., Certificate of Coverage (COC), Schedule of Benefits (SOB), and/or Summary Plan Description (SPD)] may differ

    greatly from the standard benefit plan upon which this Medical Policy is based. In the event of a conflict, the member specific benefit plan document supersedes this Medical Policy. All reviewers must first identify member eligibility, any federal or state regulatory requirements, and the member specific benefit plan coverage prior to use of this Medical Policy. Other Policies and Coverage Determination Guidelines may apply. UnitedHealthcare reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to modify its Policies and Guidelines as necessary. This Medical Policy is provided for informational purposes. It does not constitute medical advice.

    UnitedHealthcare may also use tools developed by third parties, such as the MCG Care Guidelines, to assist us in administering health benefits. The MCG Care Guidelines are intended to be used in connection with the independent professional medical judgment of a qualified health care provider and do not constitute the practice of medicine or medical advice. BENEFIT CONSIDERATIONS

    Before using this policy, please check the member specific benefit plan document and any federal or state mandates, if applicable. Essential Health Benefits for Individual and Small Group

    For plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) requires fully insured non-grandfathered individual and small group plans (inside and outside of Exchanges) to provide coverage for ten categories of Essential Health Benefits (EHBs). Large group plans (both self-funded and fully insured), and small group ASO plans, are not subject to the requirement to offer coverage for EHBs. However, if such plans choose to

    provide coverage for benefits which are deemed EHBs, the ACA requires all dollar limits on those benefits to be removed on all Grandfathered and Non-Grandfathered plans. The determination of which benefits constitute EHBs is made on a state by state basis. As such, when using this policy, it is important to refer to the member specific benefit plan document to determine benefit coverage. COVERAGE RATIONALE

    Epidural steroid injections in this policy apply to the lumbar spine only. This section does not address cervical or thoracic injections. The facet joint injections section of this policy addresses multiple sites, and is not limited to the lumbar spine.

    Related Commercial Policies

    Ablative Treatment for Spinal Pain

    Anesthesia Policy

    Occipital Neuralgia and Headache Treatment

    Community Plan Policy

    Epidural Steroid and Facet Injections for Spinal Pain

    Medicare Advantage Coverage Summary

    Pain Management and Pain Rehabilitation

    UnitedHealthcare Commercial Medical Policy

    https://www.unitedhealthcareonline.com/ccmcontent/ProviderII/UHC/en-US/Assets/ProviderStaticFiles/ProviderStaticFilesPdf/Tools%20and%20Resources/Policies%20and%20Protocols/Medical%20Policies/Medical%20Policies/Ablative_Treatment_for_Spinal_Pain.pdfhttps://www.unitedhealthcareonline.com/ccmcontent/ProviderII/UHC/en-US/Assets/ProviderStaticFiles/ProviderStaticFilesPdf/Tools%20and%20Resources/Policies%20and%20Protocols/Medical%20Policies/Medical%20Policies/Ablative_Treatment_for_Spinal_Pain.pdfhttps://www.unitedhealthcareonline.com/ccmcontent/ProviderII/UHC/en-US/Assets/ProviderStaticFiles/ProviderStaticFilesHtml/ReimbursementPolicies/Anesthesia_2017A.pdfhttps://www.unitedhealthcareonline.com/ccmcontent/ProviderII/UHC/en-US/Assets/ProviderStaticFiles/ProviderStaticFilesPdf/Tools%20and%20Resources/Policies%20and%20Protocols/Medical%20Policies/Medical%20Policies/Occipital_Neuralgia_and_Headache_Treatment.pdfhttps://www.unitedhealthcareonline.com/ccmcontent/ProviderII/UHC/en-US/Assets/ProviderStaticFiles/ProviderStaticFilesPdf/Tools%20and%20Resources/Policies%20and%20Protocols/Medical%20Policies/C&S/epidural_steroid_and_facet_injections_for_spinal_pain_CS.pdfhttps://www.unitedhealthcareonline.com/ccmcontent/ProviderII/UHC/en-US/Assets/ProviderStaticFiles/ProviderStaticFilesPdf/Tools%20and%20Resources/Policies%20and%20Protocols/UnitedHealthcare%20Medicare%20Coverage/Pain_Management_UHCMA_CS.pdf

  • Epidural Steroid and Facet Injections for Spinal Pain Page 2 of 24 UnitedHealthcare Commercial Medical Policy Effective 03/01/2017

    Proprietary Information of UnitedHealthcare. Copyright 2017United HealthCare Services, Inc.

    Ultrasound Guidance

    The use of ultrasound guidance for epidural steroid injection(s) and facet joint injection(s) is unproven and not medically necessary. There is insufficient clinical evidence regarding its safety and/or efficacy in published peer-reviewed medical literature.

    Epidural Steroid Injections

    Epidural steroid injection is proven and medically necessary for the treatment of acute and sub-acute sciatica or radicular pain of the low back caused by spinal stenosis, disc herniation or degenerative

    changes in the vertebrae. Epidural steroid injections have a clinically established role in the short-term management of low back pain when the following two criteria are met: The pain is associated with symptoms of nerve root irritation and/or low back pain due to disc extrusions and/or

    contained herniations; and The pain is unresponsive to conservative treatment, including but not limited to pharmacotherapy, exercise or

    physical therapy.

    Epidural steroid injection is unproven and not medically necessary for all other indications of the lumbar spine. There is a lack of evidence from randomized controlled trials indicating that epidural steroid injections effectively treat patients with lumbar pain not associated with sciatica or radicular pain.

    Note: This policy does not apply to obstetrical epidural anesthesia utilized during labor and delivery.

    Facet Joint Injections

    Diagnostic facet joint injection and/or facet nerve block (e.g., medial branch block) is proven and medically necessary to localize the source of pain to the facet joint in persons with spinal pain. Therapeutic facet joint injection is unproven and not medically necessary for the treatment of chronic spinal pain. Clinical evidence about the very existence of facet joint syndrome is conflicting, and evidence from studies is inadequate regarding the superiority of periodic facet joint injections compared to placebo in relieving chronic spinal

    pain (pain lasting more than 3 months). For additional information on facet joint injections as a diagnostic procedure prior to radiofrequency ablation, see Clinical Evidence.

    DEFINITIONS

    Acute Low Back Pain: Low back pain present for up to six weeks. The early acute phase is defined as less than two weeks and the late acute phase is defined as two to six weeks, secondary to the potential for delayed-recovery or risk phases for the development of chronic low back pain. Low back pain can occur on a recurring basis. If there has been complete recovery between episodes, it is considered acute recurrent. Sub-Acute Low Back Pain: Low back pain with duration of greater than six weeks after injury but no longer than 12

    weeks after onset of symptoms. (Goertz et al. 2012) APPLICABLE CODES The following list(s) of procedure and/or diagnosis codes is provided for reference purposes only and may not be all inclusive. Listing of a code in this policy does not imply that the service described by the code is a covered or non-covered health service. Benefit coverage for health services is determined by the member specific benefit plan

    document and applicable laws that may require coverage for a specific service. The inclusion of a code does not imply any right to reimbursement or guarantee claim payment. Other Policies and Coverage Determination Guidelines may apply.

    CPT Code Description

    0213T Injection(s), diagnostic or therapeutic agent, paravertebral facet (zygapophyseal) joint (or nerves innervating that joint) with ultrasound guidance, cervical or thoracic; single level

    0214T Injection(s), diagnostic or therapeutic agent, paravertebral facet (zygapophyseal)

    joint (or nerves innervating that joint) with ultrasound guidance, cervical or thoracic; second level (List separately in addition to code for primary procedure)

  • Epidural Steroid and Facet Injections for Spinal Pain Page 3 of 24 UnitedHealthcare Commercial Medical Policy Effective 03/01/2017

    Propriet

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