Film & Digital Techniques for Zone System Photography

  • Published on
    18-Dec-2016

  • View
    214

  • Download
    2

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

<ul><li><p>ZONE SYSTEMPHOTOGRAPHY</p><p>FILM &amp; DIGITALTECHNIQUES FOR</p><p>Amherst MediaPUBLISHER OF PHOTOGRAPHY BOOKS</p><p>DR. GLENN RAND</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2008 by Glenn Rand.</p><p>All photographs by the author unless otherwise noted.</p><p>Front cover photograph by Glenn Rand.Back cover photograph by Christopher Broughton.</p><p>All rights reserved.</p><p>Published by:Amherst Media, Inc.P.O. Box 586Buffalo, N.Y. 14226Fax: 716-874-4508www.AmherstMedia.com</p><p>Publisher: Craig AlesseSenior Editor/Production Manager: Michelle PerkinsAssistant Editor: Barbara A. Lynch-Johnt</p><p>ISBN-13: 978-1-58428-227-3Library of Congress Control Number: 2007942654</p><p>Printed in Korea.10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1</p><p>No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, me-chanical, photocopied, recorded or otherwise, without prior written consent from the publisher.</p><p>Notice of Disclaimer: The information contained in this book is based on the authors experience and opinions. Theauthor and publisher will not be held liable for the use or misuse of the information in this book.</p></li><li><p>About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5About the Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5</p><p>INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7The Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8</p><p>1. GETTING STARTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Variables and Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Controlling Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Aperture and Shutter Speed Calibration . . . . .10Film Speed Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10</p><p>2. UNDERSTANDING LIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19Color and Tonality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Seeing the Scene:Human Vision vs. Photography . . . . . . . . . . .23</p><p>Qualities of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25Reflected Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25Specular vs. Diffuse Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27Sweet Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28</p><p>3. THE ZONE SCALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29Dark Zones (0, I, II) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30Zone 0 (Black) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30Zone I (Near Black) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31Zone II (Patterned Darkness) . . . . . . . . . . . . .31</p><p>Detail Zones (Zones III, IV, V, VI, and VII) . . .32Zone III (Shadow Detail) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32Zone IV (Dark Middle Gray) . . . . . . . . . . . . .32Zone V (Middle Gray) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32Zone VI (Light Middle Gray) . . . . . . . . . . . . .34</p><p>Zone VII (Highlight Detail) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34Highlight Zones (Zones VIII, IX, and X) . . . . . .35Zone VIII (Patterned Highlight) . . . . . . . . . .35Zone IX (Near White) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36Zone X (White) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36</p><p>4. ZONE PLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39The Law of Reciprocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39The Characteristic Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40The Paper Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40The Film Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40</p><p>Placing the Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41Alternative Metering Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42Dark-Tone Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43Highlight Detail Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43Average Value Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44</p><p>5. VISUALIZING THE SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45Flare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45Camera System Flare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45Scenic Flare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46</p><p>Tonal Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48Expansion/Compaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49</p><p>6. DEVELOPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53The Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53The Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56Plotting Film Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56Exactness of Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64</p><p>CONTENTS 3</p><p>CONTENTS</p></li><li><p>7. MAKING PHOTOGRAPHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65Zone Control as an Overall Concept . . . . . . . . .69Zone Control as a Tonal Separation Concept . . .72Incident Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76Field Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76</p><p>8. IN-CAMERA CONTRAST CORRECTION . . . . .79Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79Dodging Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83Preexposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85Reciprocity Failure Compensation . . . . . . . . . . .87Using Reciprocity Failure for Expansion . . . . . . .89</p><p>9. ADVANCED PRINTING TECHNIQUES . . . . . . .93Global Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93Development Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93Multi-Contrast Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97Local Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97Filter Dodging and Burning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100Flashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101Bleaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102Intensifying/Toning Negatives . . . . . . . . . . . . .104</p><p>10. THE ZONE SYSTEM FORDIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105</p><p>Issues for Digital Photography in aZone System Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107</p><p>Defining the Parts of a Digital Zone System . . .112Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112Digital Zone Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115Using the Digital System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118Post-Capture Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122High Dynamic Range Imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . .124</p><p>CONCLUSIONA Personal Approach to the Visual Language . .125</p><p>Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126</p><p>PhotobyDavidRuderman.</p></li><li><p>Dr. Glenn Rand has taught and administered in publiceducation, community colleges, and universities since1996. Since 2001 he has taught in the graduate programat Brooks Institute in Santa Barbara, CA, where he servesas acting graduate program chairman. In conjunctionwith these academic roles and consulting he has devel-oped and reorganized several curricula for fine art pho-tography, commercial photography, digital imaging, andallied curricula. His teaching has included courses inlighting, as well as commercial and fine art photography.He received his bachelors degree and master of arts</p><p>from Purdue University. He earned a doctorate from theUniversity of Cincinnati, centering on the psychology ofeducational spaces, and did post-doctoral research as avisiting scholar at the University of Michigan. Since theearly 1980s, his extra-academic research has includedcomputer-based imaging.As a consultant, Rands clients have included the Ford</p><p>Motor Company, Photo Marketing Association Inter-</p><p>national, the Ministry of Education of Finland, and manyother businesses and several colleges. As part of his con-sulting for the Eastman Kodak Company, he traveled andlectured on how to maximize Tmax films when they werefirst released.Black &amp; white photographs by Glenn Rand are held</p><p>in the collections of thirty public museums in the UnitedStates, Europe, and Japan and are widely exhibited. Hisphotographs have also been published in editorial, illus-trative, and advertising functions.He has published and lectured extensively about pho-</p><p>tography and digital imaging, covering topics rangingfrom commercial aesthetics to the technical fine pointsof lighting. He is the author of numerous books and con-tributes regularly to various periodicals, such as Range-finder magazine, of which he is a contributing editor.</p><p>ABOUT THE AUTHOR 5</p><p>CHRISTOPHER BROUGHTONChristopher Broughtonearned his BS and MS in professional photography fromBrooks Institute in Santa Barbara, CA, where he servedas Director of Laboratory Operations while completinghis Masters of Science degree. Prior to becoming a full-time faculty member at the Brooks Institute in 1996,Broughton also served as faculty for University of Pitts-burghs Semester at Sea program. He has authored ar-ticles in Petersens Photographic, Outdoor Photographer,PC Photo, and Studio Photography &amp; Design Magazines,and has been a featured lecturer for Hasselblad USA, andEastman Kodak. Broughtons black &amp; white photogra-phy is exhibited and represented by Art Matters in LongBeach, CA; Robin Fold of The Golden Orb, CA; TheGriffin Gallery in Venice Beach, CA; and the Silver LightGallery in Carmel, CA.</p><p>DAVID RUDERMANDavid Ruderman has been makingphotographs for many years and has studied with well-</p><p>known photographers, such as John Sexton, throughshort courses and workshops. David works in Sacra-mento, CA, where he exhibits and has his work pub-lished. While transitioning to digital photography,Davids photographic experiences are heavily weightedwith his black &amp; white photography.</p><p>ROBERT SMITHRobert Smith (BA, MS) is a long-timefaculty member at Brooks Institute in Santa Barbara, CA,who taught full time for more than twenty years and re-mains a part-time faculty member. Before coming toBrooks, Smiths career included celebrity portraiture andadvertising photography. His personal work seeks to cap-ture the play of light and design on the natural landscape,and in the unexpected abstraction found in abandoned,man-made objects. His photographs are included in pri-vate, corporate, and museum collections, and exhibited inmany one-man and group exhibitions.</p><p>ABOUT THE AUTHOR</p><p>ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS</p></li><li><p>As photographers, we see the effects of light falling on our subjects and aredrawn to create images so we can share the visual excitement. However, inorder to best communicate our vision to viewers of our photographs, wemust rely on some tools and processes that allow us to effectively convey ourimpressions. The Zone System is one of these tools. It allows us to preciselyrecord our visual impression of the world and tell someone else what we sawin the most beautiful of visual languages: the language of black &amp; whitephotography.</p><p>INTRODUCTION</p><p>Facing pagePhoto by Glenn Rand.BelowPhoto by Christopher Broughton.</p></li><li><p>THE CONCEPTThe Zone System looks at the photographic process with the finished prod-uct in mind. Putting consideration of the print at the beginning of the cre-ative process means that the end of the process is as important as finding thesubject for the photograph. This idea is known as previsualization.To present viewers with a print that matches our creative vision, we must</p><p>have a clear idea of the way that light affects the scene and the way the visualinformation in the scene will be recorded on the negative. We must be ableto control exposure to ensure the widest range of tones, from black to white(measured in zones in this system) and capture detail within all importantareas of the scene. When we capture these qualities on the negative, we mustmaximize the development process to ensure that we can print an image thatmatches our creative vision.Though the Zone System may seem complicated, following the steps the</p><p>method requires will allow you to become consistent in the way you work andlead to better results. As you become more and more consistent, you becomefree to say more with your photographs. When consistency replaces happyaccidents, your vision will emerge.Though using the Zone System can ensure that the image you produce is</p><p>technically excellent, following the approach alone does not make a pictureart. After all, what does it matter how elegantly you speak if you have noth-ing to say? So while the main emphasis of this book is the technical approachto making excellent black &amp; white photographs, it will be your vision andinterpretation of the world around you and how you communicate thisthrough black &amp; white photography that determines your success as an artist. Photo by David Ruderman.</p><p>THE ZONE SYSTEM LOOKS AT THE</p><p>PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS WITH THE</p><p>FINISHED PRODUCT IN MIND.</p></li><li><p>Using the Zone System requires a scientific approach to creating art. To pro-duce images that match our creative vision, we must fully understand andanticipate the way the existing light affects the scene, how to best capturedetail, and how to refine the development process so that the final print sings.When photographers master the steps outlined in the Zone System, they caneasily predict (previsualize) the outcome of their prints. With the technicalsuccess of the image assured, we have more mental energy that can be put to-ward seeing and composing our photographs.</p><p>VARIABLES AND CONSTANTSOver five-thousand variables (or, more specifically, combinations of factors)are at play when creating imagesnot including the effects of filtration andadvanced printing techniques. The light in the scene, the exposure, the filmtype and ISO, the shutter speeds and aperture, the variables at play in devel-oping the film, and the options we are faced with in printing our images allaffect the outcome of our images.With so much variability, the odds that we will not achieve our goal in con-</p><p>veying our artistic vision are high. For this reason, one of the most importanttasks we must undertake when beginning to use the Zone System is to con-trol and eliminate some of the variables and their overall effect on our work.This process of standardization is the key to achieving good results. Withoutit, you cannot predict the outcome of your efforts.Of the many variables, the only factor that lies outside our control (unless</p><p>were working in the studio) is the light. For this reason, it is considered anindependent variablemeaning we cant control how it changes. The otheraspects of the photographic process (development and printing), however,are either dependent variables (we can control how they change) or constants(they dont change).By controlling the dependent variables in the photographic system, we can</p><p>compensate for the effect of the constants and the independent variables.</p><p>GETTING STARTED 9</p><p>CHAPTER ONE</p><p>GETTING STARTED</p><p>USING THE ZONE SYSTEM</p><p>REQUIRES A SCIENTIFIC APPROACH</p><p>TO CREATING ART.</p></li><li><p>CONTROLLING VARIABLESAperture and Shutter Speed Calibration. Shutter speed calibration is thefirst step in standardizing our photographic process. If a spring mechanismcreates the shutter speeds, the speeds may vary based on the strength, age,and reliability of the springand this introduces an unwanted variable intoour imaging. Use a shutter speed tester or go to a camera repair shop to havethe lens tested. Unless the shutter speeds are far out of line (more than a fac-tor of 1/3 stop), the known variation can be added into the exposure calcula-tion...</p></li></ul>

Recommended

View more >