Final Environmental Assessment Caribbean Tree Frog Control ... Environmental...¢  coqui an agricultural

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  • Final Environmental Assessment Caribbean Tree Frog Control in the

    State of Hawaii

    LeadAgency: ____________ ~U~.~S~.D~e~p~a~rt~m~e~nt~o~f~Ag~r~ic~ul~tu~re Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services Wildlife Services

    Cooperating Agencies: ______ ~S~ta:!::te~o!!..f.!..!H~awa=ii Department of Agriculture Plant Industry Division

    State of Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources Division of Forestry and Wildlife

    University of Hawaii College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources

    U.S. Department of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service

    Prepared by: ______________ ~U.::!:.S~ . .:::D~ep~a~rt~m~e:!.!nt!..!o::.!.f.!...A~g~ric7u:.::.ltu=re Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Wildlife Services

    May 24,2004

  • Caribbean Tree Frog Control

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    List of Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in this Document... .................................................. . CHAPTER 1: PURPOSE AND NEED FOR ACTION ........................................................... .

    1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ . 1.2 Purpose ........................................................................................................... . 1.3 Need for Action .................................................................................................. . 1.4 Biology ............................................................................................................. .. 1.5 Location and Scope of Analysis ............................................................................. .. 1.6 Related Caribbean Tree Frog Control Efforts ............................................................. . 1.7 Summary of NEPA Public Involvement Efforts ......................................................... .. 1.8 Related Environmental Documents ....................................................................... .. 1.9 Authority and Compliance ................................................................................... ..

    1.9.1 Authority of Federal and State agencies in invasive species management. .............. . 1.9.2 Compliance with Federal Laws and Court Orders ............................................... . 1.9.3 International Agreements and Authorities ......................................................... .. 1.9.4 Hawaii State Laws ....................................................................................... ..

    CHAPTER 2: DESCRIPTION OF ALTERNATiVES ............................................................... . 2.1 Alternative 1 - Proposed Action ............................................................................... .

    2.1.1 General Strategy ......................................................................................... .. 2.1.2 Hand Capturing and Mechanical Control. .......................................................... . 2.1.3 Habitat Alteration ......................................................................................... . 2.1.4 Citric Acid ................................................................................................... ..

    2.2 Alternative 2 - Current Program (No Action Alternative) ............................................ .. 2.3 Alternative 3 - Non Chemical Methods .................................................................... .. 2.4 Alternatives Not Assessed In DetaiL ........................................................................ ..

    2.4.1 Biological ControL ........................................................................................ .. 2.4.2 Caffeine Solution ........................................................................................ ..

    CHAPTER 3: ISSUES IMPORTANT TO THE ANALYSIS OF IMPACTS .......... ........................ .. 3.1 Issues Driving the Analysis .................................................................................... . 3.2 Issues Not Analyzed in Detail with Rationale ............................................................. .

    CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES ........................................................... . 4.1 Alternative 1 - Proposed Action ............................................................................. ..

    4.1.1 Effectiveness .............................................................................................. . 4.1.2 Impact on Non-target Animals

    4.1.3 Impacts on Vegetation ................................................................................... . 4.1.4 Impact on Human Health and Safety .............................................................. .. 4.1.5 Impact on Ecology and Environment. ............................................................. .. 4.1.6 Social - Economic Impacts ............................................................................. .

    4.2 Alternative 2 - No Action ....................................................................................... . 4.2.1 Effectiveness ................................................................................ ··· .. · .. ···· .. · 4.2.2 Impacts on Non-target Animals

    4.2.3 Impacts on Vegetation ................................................................................ .. 4.2.4 Impacts on Human Health and Safety ............................................................. . 4.2.5 Impacts on Ecology and Environment. .............................................................. . 4.2.5 Social- Economic Impacts ............................................................................. .

    4.3 Alternative 3 - Non Chemical Only .......................................................................... . 4.3.1 Effectiveness ....................................................................... ······ .. ···· .. · .... ·· .. · 4.3.2 Impacts on Non-target Animals ................................................................................ . 4.3.3 Impacts on Vegetation ........................................................................... · ... · .. · 4.3.4 Impacts on Human Health and Safety .............................................................. .

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  • Caribbean Tree Frog Control

    4.3.5 Impacts on Ecology and Environment................................................................ 34 4.3.6 Social - Economic Impacts.............................................................................. 35

    4.4 Cumulative Impacts............................................................................................ ... 35 4.5 Monitoring.. ............. .................................. ........................................................... 36

    CHAPTER 5: PREPARERS, PERSONS CONSULTED AND REFERENCES... ... ....... ................. 38 REFERENCES............................................................................................................... 42 APPENDICES A Verified and Reported Caribbean Frog Locations on the island of Hawaii.................................. 46 B Verified and Reported Caribbean Frog Locations on the island Maui ....................................... 47 C Verified and Reported Caribbean Frog Locations on the island Oahu................................ ....... 48 o Verified and Reported Caribbean Frog Locations on the island Kauai....................................... 49

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  • Caribbean Tree Frog Control

    LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

    ApH�s ______ ~A~n~im~a~la~n~d~P~la~n~t~H~ea~l~th~ln~s~pe~c~t~io~n~S~e~N~i~ce~(U~S~D~A~a~g~e~nc~yu) BIISC ______ ~B:.!lig:L!-'ils~la~n~dwlllnv.!.la:!.ls!!,;iv~e

  • Caribbean Tree Frog Control

    CHAPTER 1: PURPOSE AND NEED FOR ACTION

    1.1 Introduction

    Two species of Caribbean tree frogs, the coqui (Eleutherodactylus coqui) and greenhouse frog (E. planirostris) have recently become established in Hawaii. Large breeding populations of one or both species now exist on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Kauai and Oahu. They are considered invasive pests that have the potential to severely impact Hawaii's native ecosystems, agriculture and the quality of human life (Campbell 2001a). Frog populations have been identified in 327 sites and are rapidly increasing in number USDA, NWRC (2002). The frog's establishment has prompted Federal, State and local governments to formally declare the frog a serious threat. Among them:

    o The Mayor of the County of Hawaii issued a declaration of a State of Emergency on the Island of Hawaii (April 12, 2004), based on the frog's excessive noise, potential for impacts on native species and ecosystems, and threats to the Hawaii County's economic welfare. The Governor of the state of Hawaii is expected to follow suit; and

    o The Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA) has officially declared the coqui an agricultural pest. Intentionally transporting the frogs is a petty misdemeanor under state law (HRS Chapter 124).

    Immediate action is needed to control and prevent the spread of this invasive pest.

    The Caribbean tree frogs were probably introduced into Hawaii on plants imported from Florida, Puerto Rico or other Caribbean areas over the past 10 years or more. The frogs have been spread to various parts of the state through the movement of infested potted plants and other plant material or